Air Temperature
Warm October handed the baton over November, the last autumn month. In the first decade, numerous unprecedented highs of warmth were recorded all over the ETR, and the decade-averaged temperature anomalies in Central Russia and in the south of the ETR reached +4…6° or more degrees. In the second decade, the Arctic colds permeated to the north of the ETR, and the decade-averaged temperature anomalies became negative in the Murmansk Region and in Karelia, while in Central Russia, the air temperatures were about normal. The abnormal warmth was still observed in the south only, even though the anomalies themselves were noticeably weaker now. The third decade was the point when an avalanche of colds triggered in the north and in the northern regions of Central Russia to produce new daily temperature minima in the Kaliningrad Region and to bring the frosts down to -27° in Karelia. The decade-averaged temperatures in the Murmansk and Arkhangelsk Regions and in Karelia were 2-6° less than normal. But in the south, the weather was untimely warm again, setting new daily maxima in the Lower Volga, the Luhansk and Rostov Regions and the Krasnodar Territory, and raising the thermometer readings above +20° to create new daily highs in some places.
Throughout the month, above-normal decade-averaged temperatures were observed along the Arctic coast from Yamal to Yakutia. In Siberia, the beginning and the end of November were cold. As early as in the first decade of the month, frosts reached -30…-40° in the Irkutsk Region, in Yakutia and in the north of the Khabarovsk Territory, and -22° in the Kemerovo Region in the south of Siberia. November ended with the record-breaking frosts in the Khabarovsk Territory, but the weather in the middle of the month was considerably warmer than usual in Siberia. The air temperature averages in the second decade were 6-13° higher than normal. The Irtysh River, with its average freezing date taken for November 17 in the Omsk region, was still rolling its water flows in the middle of the third decade.

Air Temperature
Extreme warmth settled in the ETR at the end of September vanished at once in the first days of the next month and set either normal or subnormal air temperatures for almost all October, with the decade-averaged temperatures 2-3° less than normal in Central Russia and the frosts as cold as -3…-5° in the south (in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, the Rostov Region and the republics of the North Caucasus). But at the end of the month, the summer weather returned to introduce many new air temperature maxima in the Smolensk and Bryansk Regions in the west, in the Lipetsk and Belgorod Regions in the centre, and in the Crimea, the Kherson and Zaporozhye Regions as well as the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories in the south. In some locations, the thermometer readings would rise above 30°. In the Crimea, no such warmth at the end of October has been seen for more than fifty years.
A completely different picture was observed beyond the Urals. In Siberia and the Far East, almost the entire month was warmer than usual, and the decade-averaged temperature anomalies exceeded +4…7°. New daily temperature maxima, higher than +20° sometimes, were recorded in Siberia, Trans-Baikal and Kolyma, in the south of the Khabarovsk Territory, and on Sakhalin.