The main weather and climate features of the northern hemisphere in June 2017

Air Temperature.

An abnormally cold weather was in the European territory of Russia (ETR) from Barents sea to Low Volga area for the second month in a row. The end of the spring and beginning of the summer has become the coldest here since 1994, and last June is the second coldest in XXI century. The first coldest June was in 2003. The average monthly air temperatures in June 2017 in ETR are below the norm by 2-3°. Even in the end of the month in some areas of Central Federal District the day temperature decreased to +1…+3°, there were the night frosts. Heavier frosts were in the north of ETR in republic of Karelia, Murmansk and Arkhangelsk districts (to -5°). In some points new temperature minimum records have been set.
The opposite situation had place in Siberia, in the east of Urals and west of Yakutia. Here was the heat in June. The most time of the month the temperature was in diapason of +25…+35°, in some days it reached +40°. Such high temperatures became the record in a lot of areas of Krasnoyarsk, Altai and Transbaikalia districts, republics of Altai, Buryat, Kemerovo and Irkutsk areas. In Siberia Federal District the last June became the second hottest on the record in this area, the first hottest one was June of 2012. The average monthly air temperatures in this region exceeded the norm by 2-5°.
In Far East of Russia in some days it was also record heat (republic of Yakutia, Magadan district), however, the average monthly air temperature was close to the norm.



In Siberia and Far East the average air temperature of the first half-year 2017 is the highest on the record in Russia, i.e. since 1891, each month it exceeds the norm. In general, in Russia the first half-year of 2017 is the second warmest on the record, except the same period of the last year. 
In Mongolia, as well as in neighbouring Siberia June proved to be too hot (average monthly air temperatures anomalies +2…+4°). Approximately the same they are in the bordering areas of China, but in the most part of Celestial Empire, and also in Korean peninsula and Japan the average monthly air temperature was close to the norm. In some places the average temperature is slightly higher the norm, in some ones – lower. The first half-year in China, as well as in Russia, is the warmest place on the record.
In was cooler than usual in the most part of India, in Pakistan the heavy heat was observed. The temperature rose up to +45°.
In the Middle East the heat dominated. The air was heated in average during the month by 2-5° above the norm. In south-west of Iran the air temperature +53.7° was registered, this is the second temperature maximum for Asian continent. The absolute Asian maximum +54.0° belongs to Kuwait and was set in the last year, and absolute maximum for the Northern Hemisphere was registered in California (USA) +56.7°. In the Arabian Peninsula the average monthly air temperature in June exceeded +40°.
The burning hot air from Iranian Plateau penetrated to Central Asia. In all republics of Central Asia, including mountainous valleys of Kirgizia, as well as in south-east of Kazakhstan the temperature rouse up to +30…35°, in some places - +40° and higher. New air temperature maximums were registered. In Turkmenistan, in south of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan the average monthly air temperatures exceeded the norms approximately by 2°. 
In the most part of North Africa the air temperature in general was close to the norm. Only in north-west of the continent in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia it was hotter than usual by 2° and more. African heat from here was transferred to Europe, where the extreme heat dominated during the month. In Spain and Portugal the air temperature higher than +40 was the usual phenomenon. New temperature records occurred in England, Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Luxemburg, Germany. Portuguese meteorologists stated that the country has not had such June heat for more than 70 years. Sometimes cold air managed to breach the narrow corridor in this huge centre of heat and then, as in Greece, the temperature decreased to minimum values, and in the north of the continent in Scandinavian countries did not raise higher than +10…15°. Hot and dry weather caused in Portugal the heaviest fires. From Portugal to Ukraine the average monthly air temperature anomalies exceeded the norms by 2-3°, and in Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and partially in Germany – by 4° and more. The average monthly air temperature in June in the continent became the second highest value on the record. It concedes only the same value of 2003. Those June, as it known, became the beginning of catastrophically hot summer, which brought to Europeans numerous casualties and enormous economic losses.
In the most part of USA the average monthly air temperature corresponds to the norm. Only in states, which are situated in the south-east along Gulf of Mexico, it appeared slightly cooler than usual, and in the south of California, Arizona and Nevada it was too hot. At the last case the average monthly air temperature anomalies exceeded +2…3°, and in some days temperature rose above the records. In Phoenix, the capital of Arizona state it was up to +48°. In Arizona it was second warmest day in state’s history, and in other states in the west of the country from California to Colorado and New-Mexico the average monthly air temperature was in the first ten of highest values.
In Canada, also in general, temperature corresponded to the norm, and only in the north in Polar regions exceeded the norm by 2-3°. Roughly the same anomalies were in the neighbouring American state of Alaska. 
The average monthly air temperature in June in Northern Hemisphere has 3-5 rank among the highest values, conceding of this indicator only to June of 2016 and 2015.
In Moscow the average monthly air temperature of June was +14.4°, anomaly -2.1°. Such cold June in the capital is observed in XXI century for the second time. Firstly it was in 2003.

Ocean Surface Temperature.

The sea surface average temperature anomaly (SST) in Pacific and Atlantic oceans keeps itself at the previous level, i.e. about 0.5°. In equatorial latitudes of Pacific ocean the neutral phase of South oscillation is observed, the SST anomalies in El-Niño area raise slowly and now set about 0.5°.
In Pacific ocean the abnormally warm water is kept along the east coast of Asia. In Yellow, Okhotsk and Bering seas the anomalies exceeded +1…+2°. Positive anomalies (about +1°) took place in tropics, negative ones – in mid-latitudes of the ocean and also in those parts, where negative air temperature anomalies took place. In the periphery of the ocean near US and Europe coast SST is above the norm. Especially this is noticeable in the west part of Mediterranean sea, where the SST anomalies exceeded +2°. 


In ETR June proved to be very rainy. In the beginning of the month in Volga area during three days more than half of monthly norm of precipitations fallen. In the beginning of the second decade the showers inundated Central Federal District. The intensity of precipitations was to 25-30 mm/day. In the third decade rains inundated North Caucasus. In Vladikavkaz during the half-day more than 70 mm of precipitations fallen. As a result, almost in all federal provinces the precipitations sums have set the norm and more over the month. In Novgorod, Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Kostroma, Ivanovo regions and in Tatarstan republic the norm was exceeded in 1.5 times, in Samara region, republics of Bashkortostan and North Ossetia, in Ingush republic – in 2 times and more. In Murmansk region in the beginning of third decade the winter weather was formed – the snow has fallen, with snowdrifts on the cities’ streets.
In the Urals it was the norm of precipitations, but the south of Siberia was in deficiency of rains. Omsk, Irkutsk regions, Buryat Republic and Transbaikalia district have got the less than half of the precipitations norm. However, even here in some places the heavy rains have fallen. In the end of the month the showers inundated the south of West Siberia. In Tomsk region the rain, continued during the eight hours, brought more than monthly precipitations norm. 
In Far East Federal District it was norm and less of precipitations. Less the norm is regarded to Yakut Republic, in the north of which the wet snow was observed. Some areas of Primorye district and south of Sakhalin have got the above the norm precipitations.
Heavy rains inundated China. In many areas the precipitations norms were exceeded in 1.5-3 times. In the second half of the month the showers caused the heavy floods and landslides with hundreds of casualties, and tens of thousands suffered from disaster. According to the local authorities’ information, in Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi - Zhuang Autonomous region the rains caused an irretrievable damage of the rice and tea harvests. In Sichuan province two landslides in succession with interval of three days destroyed the dozens of houses and caused the hundreds of casualties. Summer monsoon and linked with it “plum rains” came to Japan. In some places it was from 200 to 400 mm of the rain over the 12 hours. The rain intensity exceeded 50 mm/hour. Because of landslides the county authorities evacuated more than 200 thousand people. 
Monsoon covered India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The rains caused landslides with casualties and destruction of transport infrastructure. In Bangladesh local specialists assessed the last rains as a heaviest monsoon showers over the last years. In the north of India and Pakistan the monthly precipitations sums exceeded the norm in 2-4 times.
In the south of Central Asia (Afghanistan and Tajikistan) there were a lot of rains (in some places in 1.5-2.0 times above the norm), and in the other territory the precipitations were in the norm and less. The last regards to the central and northern areas of Kazakhstan.
Mainly dry weather dominated in the Middle East. However, in Transcaucasia and Turkey the heavy rains have fallen. In Georgia the orchards suffered from showers and hail. Bad weather in the east of the country spoiled the most part of harvest. 
In West Africa there were a lot of rains. In some areas of Sahel region and in Atlantic coast countries the precipitations norms were exceeded in 1.5-2.5 times.
The very contradictory situation with precipitations was in Europe. In all continent so called “spotted precipitations” were observed. Dry areas in Italy, in Balkans, East and Central Europe alternated with the surplus of moisture in the west and north of the continent, and also in its central part. The record-breaking amounts of precipitations have fallen in Norway. At the coast in Bergen the rains was continuing during all month every day.
In some European countries, where the monthly precipitations sums have set the norm and more, sometimes the heavy rains were falling. In Lithuania it was more than 50 mm of precipitations over the day. In the last day of June Germany suffered from rains, especially the capital Berlin. This rain became the heaviest over the last 110 hours. It was more than 15 litres of water on each square kilometre. Flooded streets of the city blocked the traffic. In the north of Poland at that moment it also was bad weather. The rain inundated the electric facilities, stopping the railway traffic. 
The US territory was divided into dry west and wet east and south. In Atlanta, New Orleans, Dallas the monthly precipitations norms were exceeded in 2, in Cleveland and Boston – in 1.5 times. At the same time in California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah there are areas, where it was no even one drop of rain over the month. In the south-east of country the last June from North Carolina to Alabama and Florida came to the first ten of the “wettest” ones over the last 100 years.
In Canada in the south and east of the country the mainly wet weather stayed. Here the monthly precipitations norms have set the norm and more, in the north and north-east there were a few rains.
In Moscow the monthly precipitations norms have set 139 mm or 158% of the norm. This is forth result over the record. More precipitations in June the capital had only in 1894, 1942 and 1991. The last day of the month became the record one on the daily precipitations quantity fallen in June. Now the daily June record is 65 mm, whereas the monthly June norm is 75 mm. Over the first half-year the capital had more than 60% of the annual precipitations norm.