The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in October 2016

Air temperature

After the first cool Autumn month in the European territory of Russia the warm weather set at the beginning of October. Air temperature anomalies on the vast territory to the south from Moscow exceeded 2-6° during the first month decade. Everything changed sharply in the second decade. The first large-scale freeze came. Air temperature in Chernozemye region dropped down to -4…-6°. Decade average temperature anomalies in almost all European territory, excluding North, are negative. In the centre and in the south the temperature dropped down to -2…-4°. They were almost the same up to the end of the month. As a result, the last October became colder than usual in the most part of European Russia, excluding Russian North. The same event has already been observing for the third and fourth year relatively in the centre and south of the European Russia.


Abnormally cold weather has set over the Urals – in Siberia and south Far East for the most part of the month. The new daily air temperature lows have been recorded in Altai, Kemerovo district, in the south of the Khabarovsk region, in Sakhalin and Kurile islands. The frosts reached -30° in Krasnoyarsk region, in the north of Irkutsk district and Yakutia.  Monthly average air temperature in the south of Siberian and Far East Federal Districts became below norm by 2-5°. Those cold October in Primorye Territory was recorded last time in 1980s.

Only Russian Arctic region confronted to this cold. Hear from the Cola peninsula and to Chukchi district the new air temperature highs have registered all month, including those for the month in general. Monthly average temperatures exceeded the norm by 2-6°, in the Arctic islands – by 8-10°. The first time in the history the October monthly average temperature in the north of the Far East became positive.

This confrontation of the warm North and cold South was the reason that the October average air temperature became close to the norm in Russia in general.

Siberian cold captured Mongolia and northern China. Anomalies of the average air temperature in Mongolia have set down to -6°, in China – to -2°. However, on the most China with neighbouring Korea and Japan it was warm. Monthly average air temperature is above norm. In Japan and Korea it is more by 1.5-2.0°, in the Chinese South – by 3°. New daily temperature highs have been registered in Japan, including Tokyo.

Air temperature in the south-east Asia is slightly above normal. In the Hindustan peninsula it was cooler than usual in the central India, whereas in Pakistan, vice versa, air became warmer at the average by 2°.

The cold weather was settled in the Central Asia. The frosts came even to Uzbekistan at the end of the month. In Astana the daily mean temperature became negative in two weeks earlier the norm. Everywhere from northern Kazakhstan boundary to the southern borders of Turkmenistan,   Uzbekistan and Tajikistan the last October was colder the normal. In Kazakhstan it is by 2-4°, in the Central Asia republics – by 1.5-2.5°.

Air temperature in the Middle East as well as in African North is above the norm. In Beirut the anomaly is by +2°, Saudi Arabia and Iran - +2…3°, in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco - +2-4°.

In the most part of Europe monthly average temperature became close to the norm, though it emerged at the general negative temperature background. Only continental south have yet kept the summer temperatures. In Sicily and Spain the air was heated up to +30° and higher.

USA had very warm weather. Almost everywhere monthly average temperatures exceeded the norm, in many states – by 2-3°. At the Mexico border, in New Mexico and Arizona the record-breaking high temperature was registered. October 2016 in USA became third of the warmest ones in the ranged row in recorded history. In the most part of Canada the temperature was closest to the norm. Only in the west it was relatively lower, but in the north – significantly higher (by 2-4°). In the most part of Mexico the temperature was higher than normal, especially in the north and centre of the country, where monthly average anomalies have set 2-4°.

As before, Arctic keeps itself very warm. For the first time October monthly average air temperature anomaly in general exceeded +5°, and reached +6…10° in the vast territory.

The cold weather of the middle latitudes was the reason of the fact, that firstly in the last 18 months (from May 2015 through October 2016) monthly average air temperature did not reach the high, positioning in the ranked row behind the last year October.

In Moscow the monthly average air temperature has set +4.4°, anomaly is -0.7°. Third year in row the Muscovites have got the cold October.

Ocean surface temperature.

In the Pacific and Atlantic oceans the monthly average sea surface temperature anomaly have decreased, in the Pacific ocean – by 0.1°, in the Atlantic one – by 0.2° in comparison with the previous month.

In the Pacific equatorial latitudes against the background of the Southern Oscillation neutral phase the continuing rise of the negative anomalies of the monthly average sea surface temperatures is taking place, increasing in absolute value as well as in required space. At the average, they reached -0.5° that, as known, is an important indicator for the new La-Ninja time determination. For this condition the negative or higher anomaly in absolute value must be kept not less than three months in row. In some equatorial belt areas the average sea surface temperature anomalies have already set -1°. Also, abnormally cold weather has been concentrated in Okhotsk sea and to the north from Japan, abnormally warm – in the Kuroshio current and in the northern part of the ocean.

In Atlantic ocean the positive anomalies take place along the North American coast (up to +1…+2°) and in Norway and Greenland seas, and negative ones – in cold Canarias current  and once again in the central part of the middle latitudes between America and Europe.

Substantially higher the normal the sea temperature is in the Arctic basin, in Barents and Kara seas – by 3-4°, in Chukchi sea – by more than 2°.


In October precipitation was low in the most part of Russia. In the European part only in the west of the Central Federal District and in the south region the precipitation was close to the norm and higher. In Kabardino-Balkaria, Ingushetia and Karachai-Cherkess it substantially exceeded the norm in 2-3 times. On the other European territory it became less than normal. In the Central Russia the first snow fell in the middle of the month. But the particularly heavy snowfalls took place in the last days of the month in the Central Federal District, the snow height has already reached 15 cm.

In the Urals the snow cover was already settled in the last decade of the month. On the south of the Urals Federal District total monthly precipitation was normal, in the north – substantially less the norm. A lot of precipitation was in the Siberian south and Far East north. The winter came to the Siberian south two weeks earlier the climate norm. Here the snowfalls made the 40 cm snow cover at the end of the month. Monthly precipitation norm is exceeded twice and more in Altai and Tuva republics.

Even higher the snow cover was in Magadan district – up to 70 cm. Here and in Chukchi region the precipitation norms were exceeded in 1.5 times. Far East south was deprived of precipitation in this month.
There was a lot of precipitation in the east and south of China as well as in the neighbouring Korea. At some places the norms were exceeded in 3-5 times. In Mongolia the precipitation was the normal and some more, in the west of China and in Japan – below the norm.

Rains drenched the Indochina countries. In the central Vietnam provinces precipitation was twice higher than norm. The floods took place. According to the news, tens of people died, many thousands houses were flooded or ruined. Rice seeds were destroyed.

The dry season came to the Hindustan peninsula. A lot of precipitation was in the Central Asian republics and in the south of Kazakhstan. At the last case it was prevailed snow which formed the temporary snow cover with height up to 9 cm.

The dry weather has set the Middle East. Only Southern Caucasus had the heavy rains in the middle of the month. As a result, in some areas of Azerbaijan the monthly precipitation norms were exceeded in 1.5 times. The heavy snowfalls were registered in Armenia at the end of the month, in the mountains the snow cover high reached 50 cm.

Northern Africa has got very few rains. The monthly precipitation norm and more was only in the south-west of the region. In the Hurgada area of Egypt the record-braking rain fell. Over period of two days 51mm of the rain fell, this is 170 monthly or 25 annual precipitation norms. Because of rain showers and floods the Red sea resorts were affected.

Europe has got the great amount of precipitation this month. In some areas of the central Italy, in the east France, Spain, in Austria and Poland the precipitation norm were exceeded in 2 times and more. But the heaviest rainfalls were in Ukraine. Odessa had three-month precipitation norm over the period of 2 days, and at the end of the month the precipitation norms were exceeded in 2-7 times all over Ukraine. Only north of the continent (Scandinavian countries and United Kingdom) had the precipitation below the norm. The winter came here at the beginning of the month. The first snow fell in Finland.

In USA the great amount of precipitation was in the north-west of the country, together with the southern Canada. Rain showers made here from 2 to 5 monthly precipitation norms. The record-breaking monthly precipitation amounts were registered in Washington and Montana states. 1.5 – 2 precipitation norms went to north-east of USA and south-east of Canada. Other USA territory in general has got a low precipitation amount. South-west USA and neighbouring Mexico had the areas with zero monthly precipitation. The same one can say on the northern territories, whereas in the centre and east of the country the precipitation was normal.

The monthly precipitation amount in Moscow is – 49 mm or 83% of the norm.