Weather and climate highlights-2014 in the Russian Federation


The 2014 spatially averaged surface temperature in the Russian Federation tied with 2013 was the 6th highest on the record since the beginning of instrumental observations in 1891. That is considerably lower than in the record-breaking 2007. Ten warmest years in the record took place in the XXI century.

January-December mean temperature anomalies averaged over Russian territory, 1891-2014

2014 annual temperature anomalies wrt the 1961-1990 base period

2014 was warmer than usual over most part of the country, except Urals, Volga region and the western part of Siberian Federal Districts (FD), where the average annual temperature was close to normal.

Ranks of the 2014 monthly and annual temperature means averaged over regions of Russia with respect to the 124 years’ observational record (1891-2014)

Note: ten warmest years are marked in red; ten coldest years - in blue.

During 2014 the historical temperature extremes were many times updated in different parts of the country, and some monthly means were also record-breaking. But for the whole year, the absolute maximum of the mean temperature was reached only in the north of the Russian Far East – in the Magadan region and Chukotka, where the greatest anomalies (up to 3…4°C) were registered.

Averaged over Russian territory winter 2014 closed the first twenty of the warmest years in the record, spring 2014 became the warmest on record.

Spring 2014 temperature anomalies (with respect to the 1961-1990 base period)

Summer 2014 in Russia was the tenth of the warmest years, but July 2014 in the Urals became the 5th coldest since 1891 and September was the coldest since 2001.

Autumn 2014 was the warmest on the record in the north of the Far East. It was the coldest since 2001 in Central, Volga, Uralsk and Siberian regions.


October 2014 temperature departure from average (with respect to a 1961-1990 base period)

October became the coldest in the Central region since 2010, in the south of European Russia since 1970-80.

Cold spell occurred in the European Russia in the second half of October. Lots of records of minimum temperature in many parts, including southern region, were broken. Temperature dropped to -18…-23° C in the north, down to -10…-15° C in the centre and to -5…-11° C in the south. The negative anomalies reached 8-11°C. First snowfalls were observed in this period, and a temporary snow cover was formed. Such a cold weather occurred in the first time since 1982.


Central, Volga and some parts of the Southern regions in the European territory of Russia experienced drier than usual conditions. Near normal precipitation amount was observed mainly to the East of the Urals. Wetter than usual weather took place in Transbaikalia and the Amur region. In some months heavy rains were observed in Altai, in some parts of the Siberia, in the Magadan region, Yakutia and in the Urals.


The Ob River (Siberia) was released from ice sheet 2 weeks earlier than usual, and ice drift began. It’s the earliest time for the last 100 years.

In Altai, Khakassia and Tuva Republics heavy rains caused severe floods in the late May and June.

In summer the low water content was observed on the rivers of the Central Russia.

Most significant impact of weather conditions

More than 2-2.5 of monthly average precipitation fell in Altay, Khakassia and Tuva Republics. Heavy rains caused floods which began in the late May and continued in June. Water level in the Upper Ob River reached 0.82-2.93 meters above the dangerous marks and 0.12-1.44 meters above the previous maximum levels. In total more than 70 thousand of people were impacted by floods, over 41 thousand people were temporarily evacuated. Authorities assessed common damage from the unprecedented flood in June at 6,5 billion rubles (nearly $2 billion). Authorities of the republic Altai noted that it was the most devastating event in history of the region.

Ex-tropical cyclones impacted on the Russian Far East in 2014

From June to October 2014 3 ex-tropical cyclones impacted on the Russian Far East, particularly Kuril Islands and the south of Sakhalin and Kamchatka. They brought some heavy rains and wind gusts up to 42 m/s.

Severe weather phenomena

Total number of the dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena (including agrometeorological and hydrological ones) in 2014 was 898; 368 of them caused the significant damage to the economy (in 2013 963 and 455, respectively).

Number of severe weather events caused damage, 1996-2014.

Fire risk

Index of fire risk across Russia in 2014 was almost the same as in 2010, and the highest during 2001-2014.

In 2014 high fire risk was observed in the Central, Southern and Far East regions. It was near normal for the Ural and Northwest region. In Volga region fire risk was significantly lower than in 2010.