Air Temperature.

Surprising temperature swing was observed in the Russian Federation in the last January. In the first decade almost entire country territory, except the south of Siberia and Kamchatka was in the conditions of the abnormally warm weather. In the European territory (ETR) and in the north Urals the average decade temperature norms were exceeded by 6-13°. In the north-west and centre of ETR the new temperature maximums were registered.

The abnormal temperature background was kept here in the second decade, although it became weaker (decade anomalies - +4…9°). In Polar area the warmth records were achieved. But at the same time the cold air captured entire territory of the country from Urals to the Pacific ocean, as well as in Volga area and North Caucasus. In Yakutia the frosts reached -60°, in Siberia they impended closely to -50°, in Volga area - -30°. But, in some areas in the south of Siberia (Kemerovo region, Altai district) in the middle of the summer it was warmer than 0°.

However, in the third decade the swing once again moved to the opposite side – to the abnormal warmth and over there, where recently the severe cold dominated, the large warmth anomalies were registered. In the north areas of the country the air temperature in the third decade exceeded the norm by 10-12°. Warmth records have been set in the north-west (Leningrad, Arkhangelsk areas) and in north-east (Magadan region, Chukchi Autonomous region, Kamchatka district, where in the height of the winter the positive temperatures were registered). But the frosts were not going to leave the south areas of ETR, Siberia and the Far East. Here it was, as usual, very cold and colds minimums were renewed. In the south of West Siberia, Altai, Kuznetsk basin and Primorye they reached -40°…47°, in Crimea -15°.

Such air temperature variability during the month did not allow the average value to approach the extremums in no one federal districts. In general, in Russia the average temperature over the first month of 2018 is in the ten of the highest values on the record.

Cold air from Siberia captured Mongolia and north areas of China. In Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia provinces the temperature dropped down to -40, average air temperature anomaly has set -2…-4°. In the centre of Celestial Empire it was colder than usual and only in the south over the month the air was heated up to the norm, in some places above the norm, but not noticeably. In the south of Korea and Japan the air temperature is below the norm. Especially cold it was during the last week of the month.

Although in the south-east Asia (Indochina countries, Philippines) in January it was on the average warmer than usual by 1-2°, but “Siberian cold” reached those area also. In Singapore the new temperature minimums +21…22° have been set, that is considered as cold for this equatorial city.

Approximately temperature norm was reached in India (slightly below the norm – in the east and above the norm – in the west). In other South Asian country – Pakistan – over the month the air was heated by 2-3° above the norm.

Very heavy frosts in January were got by Central Asia countries.  In Kazakhstan and Kirgizia the temperature dropped down to -40° and lower. There were news on the human losses because of overcooling. The frosts caused the electricity shortages in Kirgizia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. In Kazakhstan almost everywhere the average monthly air temperature is below the norm. In some places the anomalies were -2…-5°. In Kirgizia the anomaly was -2°. At the same time in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenia it was warmer than usual by 1-3°.

Approximately the same average monthly air temperature anomalies were in the Middle East. In Bagdad and Tehran – they are +2.8°, Tbilisi +2.7°, Eilat +1.6°, Amman +1.2°.

In the most part of North Africa the temperature is close to the norm. Only to the south from Sahara in Niger, Burkina-Faso, in the south of Mali, on the Atlantic coast in Senegal and to the south the temperature was below the norm.

In Europe the warm weather was all month. On the Mediterranean coast of Spain it was as warm as in summer - +25°. It was news from Italy, France, Spain, Bulgaria on the new maximum air temperature records. From Atlantic coast of France to Balkans, Ukraine and Baltic countries the air was heated by 2-5° above the norm over the month. The average temperature of the last January in the continent was placed on the boundary of the first five highest values on the record. However, more than 1° separates it from the warmest January of 2007.

The cold, penetrated to the east of USA at the end of the last year, was kept here during the first decade of January. In New York during the New Year’s night it was -14°, this is one of the lowest values on the record. In some places the frost reached -30°. The cold reached even tropical Florida, where the night temperature were lowered to -4°. The Massachusetts state coast inhabitants have seen the frozen Atlantic ocean, at the same time the air temperature -20°. In North Carolina national park some alligators were frozen in the ice. But then during the second decade the warmth came and the ice was melted, crocodiles became mobile. Over the month the cold was kept only in the south-east of the country. From Mississippi to the South Carolina the average monthly air temperature anomalies have set -1.0…-1.5°. In the other US territory the last January is warmer the norm. Especially in the west, where the norm is exceeded by 2-4° and more. In Salt-Lake-City the anomaly is +5.7°, Las Vegas +4.5°, San Francisco +2.5°.

The abnormally cold weather was registered in Mexico. In the capital of the country the air temperature dropped down to -4°. In the central part of the country the month became colder the norm, whereas in the north, closer to US border it was warmer the norm.

In the most part of Canada the air over the month was heated warmer than usual. In the west the anomalies reached +3…6°, in the Atlantic coast +2° and more. Only in Quebec, Ontario and partially in Manitoba the average monthly air temperature became below the norm by 1-2°.

The average monthly air temperature of the Northern Hemisphere has 4-5 rank amongst the extremely high values. Only January 2007, 2016 and 2017 were warmer.

In Moscow the average monthly air temperature is -4.3°, anomaly is +4.9°. 




In the European Territory of Russia the atmosphere precipitations in the form of rain, snow and sleet were the frequently phenomena. The prolific precipitations were in Nizhniy Novgorod, Republic of Mordovia, Krasnodar district and Crimea. In some places there were more than 50mm over the day. In the last days of the month the Baltic cyclone brought heavy snowfalls to the Central Russia. In North-West and Central Federal districts the precipitations norm in some places were exceeded in 1.5 times and more. More than the precipitation norm was got by some areas of Rostov region, Krasnodar and Stavropol districts, republics of North Caucasus, republics and regions of Upper and Middle Volga, whereas in the south of Volga area it was a few precipitations.

The dry weather was in Urals. Here the monthly precipitations sums have set, as a rule, less the half of the norm. In Siberia the precipitations have set the norm, except Irkutsk region and Transbaikalia, where the norm was exceeded in 1.5-2.5 times. In the south of West Siberia some heavy snowfalls caused the new daily precipitations maximums in Omsk, Tomsk and Novosibirsk regions.

Far East Federal district, as always in winter period, pleased people with the winter sceneries. Heavy snowfalls have fallen in Kamchatka, Sakhalin and Magadan region. In many areas the monthly precipitations exceeded the norm, in some places in 2-4 times.

In the beginning and end of the month, the heavy snowfall covered with snow the north, central and east China provinces: Jiangxi, Hubei, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu. Snowbanks caused numerous cancellations of railway and air transportations. South of the country - Guangdong and Yunnan provinces - were inundated with rains. In these territories the monthly precipitations sums exceeded the norms in 2-3 times, other territory has got approximately the norm. Heavy snowfalls were in the north of Japan, in the south – heavy rains, there were more than 40mm of precipitations over the day.

Prolific rains inundated Malaysia and Philippines, where the precipitations norms were exceeded in 2-3 times.

In India, Pakistan, in the most part of the Middle East and Central Asia it was a few precipitations. In many areas it was absence of precipitations. Rare but heavy rains fell in Lebanon, Israel and Georgia.

It was absence of rains in North Africa, except some areas of Algeria and Morocco. In Algerian part of Sahara desert the snow fell the second winter in a row. In last winter it was in December, and before it only one time in February 1979.

Europe, except Italy and Balkan countries majority, has got a lot of precipitations. Heavy rains fell in Spain and Portugal, more than 30mm precipitations have fallen over the day. In the other end of the continent in Romania, Moldova, Ukraine the snow chaos destroyed electricity and transportation. Protracted rains caused floods in Paris. Water level in the Seine raised by 4 meters above the norm. The river burst the banks in the centre of the city. The residents of nearby houses were rescued, the museums were closed, road traffic in tunnels was stopped. According to French meteoservice, in Paris the precipitations sum over the December 2017 and January 2018 became the third highest value since 1900. Atlantic cyclones consistently brought the bad weather to the North and Central European countries, there were rains and strong wind, velocity of which exceeded 30m/s. In some places there were from 30 to 50mm of precipitations over the day. In France and Germany the monthly precipitations norms were exceeded in 2-3 times.

In USA the cold in the east of the country was followed by prolific snowfalls and strong wind. In states, situated along the Atlantic coast, the monthly precipitations sums were exceeded in 1.5-2.0 times. It was few precipitations in the west of the country. In Texas and New-Mexico they were absent. Rain showers several times in the middle of the month came to California, it caused heavy floods and landslides, followed by human losses.

East Canadian provinces have got a norm of precipitations, in the south – more than the norm, in the north – less the norm.

In Moscow the monthly precipitations norm has set 66mm, it exceeds norm in 1.5 times. Winter precipitations norm in the capital has already fulfilled by December and January attempts.



Hydrometcentre of Russia