THE MAIN WEATHER AND CLIMATE FEATURES OF THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE IN MARCH 2018

 

Air Temperature.

As it known, the last March (2017) was the warmest month in Russia on the record. In the country the air temperature norms were exceeded. In the centre – by 4-5°, Siberia and north of the Far East - by 7-12°.

The exact antithesis of it became the present March. At this moment, the cold weather for almost entire month dominated in the most part of Russia. From west borders to Yakutia the average monthly air temperature was below the norm. Especially large negative anomalies were formed in the European territory. From Low Volga area to Arctic ocean coast the average monthly air temperature is below the norm by 2-5°, in Komi republic – by 6°. March 2018 became the coldest one in XXI century in Volga area, the second coldest month in Urals and north of ETR and the third in the Central area. During the month repeatedly the new minimal temperature values were registering. First time in happened on the 2nd  and the last time – 30th of March. In Yakutia the frost were reaching -50°, in Chukotka and Kolyma -40…-45°, in Siberia  -35°, in Urals and north of ETR -30° and lower, in Central Russia -25°. In Chernozem area such colds have not been seen more than half century. In the Central Russia March became colder than January, it happens very rare.

Only in the south of European territory and Siberia and Far East the month became warmer than usual. In Stavropol and Krasnodar districts, republics of North Caucasus in the middle of the March the air was heated up to +20°. In the third decade the early warmth came to Altai, south areas of Krasnoyarsk district and Irkutsk region, Transbaikalia. In the first and third decades the abnormal warmth came to the north-east of Russia. Here the average decade air temperatures exceeded the norm by 8-10°.

Such contrast of the warmth and cold caused to the average March air temperature close to the norm.

Last March was very warm in all territory of East Asia. In the second part of the month in Mongolia, China and Japan the exceptional warm weather dominated. The air was heated up to 20-25°. The new maximum temperatures were registering. In Mongolia, the month norm was exceeded by 8-10°, in China – 4-6°, Japan – 2-4°. In China, the last March is the warmest on the record. Its average temperature exceeded the previous achievement of 2006 by 0.2°.

Abnormally warm weather in the Central Asia and Middle East in February was kept in March. Temperature repeatedly rose above +30°.  In Almaty the average monthly air temperature is above the norm by 6.4°, Samarkand – 6.8°, Dushanbe – 4.8, Ashgabat – 5.7°, Amman – 4.8°, Rafha (Saudi Arabia) – 6.0, Tehran – 6.1°.

Noticeably hotter than usual it was in North Africa. Average monthly air temperature is in the first five highest values on the record. In Mediterranean countries the temperature norms were exceeded by 2-5°, to the south of Sahara – by 2-3°.

In Europe, the February cold was transferred to the beginning of March. In the east of the continent (Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine) the frosts were reaching -20…-25° at that moment. But in the middle of the month the warmth came. In Greece, the air was heated up to +20° and more. In Prague, the new temperature maximum was registered. But, in general the averaged monthly air temperature in all continent became lower the norm.

In the most part of Canada, except US border areas, in March it was noticeably warmer than usual. In the east of the country – by 5-7°, in the west – by 2-4°. In USA, the cold prevailed the warmth. Particularly it was observed in the east of the country, where the average monthly air temperature was below the norm by 2-3°. Approximately the same situation is in the north-west. Only in south-west from California to Texas March is warmer the norm by 2-3°. In the entire country, the average monthly air temperature is close to the norm.

Average monthly air temperature of the Northern Hemisphere in March is in the first ten highest values on the record, but noticeably succeeds to the record temperatures of March 2016 and 2017.

In Moscow, the average monthly air temperature is -5.1°. The month became colder the norm by 2.9°.

 

Ocean Surface Temperature.

 

Although the average anomaly of the sea surface temperature (SST) in El-Niño – La Niña area continues to decrease, the area of negative SST anomalies, is still noticeably large, especially in South Hemisphere. As it was mentioned earlier, it is supposed that La Niña phenomenon was finished in the end of spring – the first half of the summer, and South oscillation was transferred to the neutral phase.

In the Pacific ocean the abnormally cold water is situated the suburban territories in the west (Yellow, Japan and Okhotsk seas). But, the most part of Pacific ocean surface has the temperature above the norm, and anomaly, averaged in all ocean surface in Northern Hemisphere, is kept at the same level as in the last months.

In the Atlantic ocean the sea surface became substantially colder. The average anomaly was decreased and now the average monthly SST in the Northern Hemisphere approached to the norm. Temperature in the east of tropical and equatorial latitudes in colder than it, as well as in the north of the ocean. At the same time, in Gulf of Mexico and along the US coast the SST temperature is above the norm, in some places by 2°.

 

Precipitation.

 

March in the most part of Russia appeared among the very cold and very wet months, it became snowy and rainy one. In the beginning of the month, the snow cyclone brought abundant precipitations to Chernozem area and south areas of Russia. In some places, the daily maximums were exceeded. Then, it moved to the south of Siberia, covered Tumen area, where some snowfalls cumulated more than monthly precipitations norm. In the middle of the month north of ETR has got a lot of snow, in the third decade the snow and rains fell once again in Chernozem area and south (Volgograd area, Krasnodar district, Crimea), in Volga area, Altai and south of Siberia (Tomsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Kemerovo areas).

In all federal districts, there are regions, in which the monthly precipitations norms were noticeably exceeded. In North-West Federal district it is  Komi republic (in 1.5 times), in Central one – Voronezh and Belgorod areas (in 2.5 times), Kursk and Tambov areas (in 2 times), Oryol and Lipetsk areas (in 1.5 times and more), in Volga region – Saratov area (in 2 times), Ulyanovsk, Penza, Orenburg areas, republics of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan (in 1.5 times and more); in South one – republics of Kalmykia, Adygea and Crimea (in 2.5 times), Volgograd and Rostov areas (in 2 times and more); North Caucasian one – Stavropol district, Kabardian-Balkar and Karachaevo-Cherkessk republic, North Ossetia (in 2.5 times); Urals one – Kurgan and Tyumen areas (in 2.5 times); Siberian one – republics of Altay and Tyva (in 3 times and more), Tomsk and Kemerovo areas, republic of Buryatia (in 1.5 times and more); Far East – Magadan area (in 2.5 times), Chukotka autonomous district (in 1.5 times).

In Mongolia and to the south of it to Hwang Ho river the month was dry. Here it was barely half of the monthly norm, in some places there are not it at all. But, in the other part of Celestial Empire there were a lot of precipitations. Between Hwang Ho and the Chang Jiang rivers, in the south and Tibet there are up to two norms and more. Japan has got the precipitations norm and in some places more.

The rains inundated the South-East Asia. In the north of Vietnam, Cambodia, Philippines and Indonesian island of Sumatra their monthly sums exceeded the norm in 2-3 times and more.

In India and Pakistan, Middle East and south of the Central Asia (Afghanistan) there were no precipitations. But, in the north areas of the Central Asia – Kazakhstan – there were plenty of them. In the north and north-east of Kazakhstan they exceeded the norms in 2-2.5 times, in other republics – in 1.5-2 times and more.

Most part of African continent in the Northern Hemisphere has not got the atmosphere precipitations at all. They took place only along Mediterranean coast and in the Gulf of Guinea countries (Cote d’Ivoire, Burkina-Faso, Ghana), where precipitations monthly sums exceeded the norms in 1.5-2.0 times.

In the beginning of the month Europe was attacked by snowfalls. They blocked the roads in France. Heavy snowstorms were in all UK. In the same time, showers were in Spain and Portugal. Here in some places over the 6 hours up to 50mm of the precipitations were cumulated. In the middle of the month, abundant rains inundated Balkans. In Montenegro, it was 30-40mm of precipitations over the day. In Croatia, the rains caused the floods. In general over the month in Balkans, and in the neighbouring Moldova and Ukraine two thirds of the precipitation norms have fallen. The same situation was in some areas of Spain and Portugal. But, in general, in the most part of the continent the precipitations have set the norm and slightly more of that. Only the north-east has substantially less the norm.

Heavy snowfalls in the beginning of the month pounced upon the east coast of the USA. Some areas of New-Jersey, New-York, Connecticut and Massachusetts have got up to 60 cm of the fresh snow. Here it became 2.0-2.5 norms of precipitations. Roughly norm of precipitations or slightly more was in the Middle West and Texas. But to the west of it the precipitations were not observed. Only in Pacific coast in Oregon and Washington states they reached the norm and in some places more of it. In the south-east of Canada the monthly precipitations norms are less the norm, as well as in the west province of Yukon, in the other territory it is approximately norm and slightly more.

Moscow had 31mm of precipitations, that is close to the norm.

 

 

Hydrometcentre of Russia