Air Temperature.

In July 2018 air temperature, averaged by all Russian Federation territory, is close to the norm. However, this result is achieved due to opposition of the hot and at some times, very hot weather in the European territory of the country, and the cold one in Siberia. In the second and third decades of the month, the air temperature from Arctic to the Black and Caspian seas exceeded the decade norm by 2-7°. It was repeatedly informed on the new temperature maximums in Polar circle, as well as in Low Volga area, North Caucasus and Crimea. In the north of ETR, it was above +30°, in the south - +40°. In Murmansk during the month it was fixed 8 days with the temperature higher than +30°, it has never been before. In some Polar areas, the duration of the hot weather one can qualify as a severe weather. In republics of North Caucasus, the average monthly air temperature in July came into the first three highest values on the record.
At the same time, the minimum temperature records were registered in East Siberia, that was surprising,  because during all previous month (June) the maximum temperature values were registered here, and as Hydrometcentre informed earlier, June 2018 became the hottest one in Siberian history. July in Siberia became colder than June. In the end of the month, the early frosts covered the Irkutsk area.
As a result, the July average air temperature in the European territory of the country exceeded the norm by 2-4°, in Siberia it is less the norm by 1-3°, in the Far East is close to the norm.

In the East Asia the abnormally hot weather dominated. In the east of China, in Korea and Japan the air temperature norms were exceeded by 2-4° and more. Japan especially suffered from the heat, where the highest air temperatures were kept during the two weeks. Meteorological agency of the country informed on disaster of severe weather. Tens of people died from the heat, mainly old ones, hundreds were hospitalized with the heat strokes. In many areas of the country, the new maximum temperature records were registered. In Tokyo, the day temperature rose higher the +40°, during the night the heat was kept higher +30°. In China, the average monthly air temperature is in the first five of the highest values on the record. Let us remind, that last July was the hottest one in the Celestial history.
In India the temperature became relatively lower the norm, but in the Middle East and Central Asia it was abnormally hot. From Mediterranean coast to Iran and Central Asia republics the average monthly air temperatures exceeded the norms by 2-4° and more. In Transcaucasia republics, the temperature reached 40° and more. New maximum values of the temperature were registered during several days in a row. It was extremely hot in the west of Turkmenia, where the air was heated more than +45°. New record took place in the capital of the country Ashgabat. In the north of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, the extreme heat was registered in the south-west of the country, where temperature rose higher than +44°. In the third decade to the east of the country the abnormally cold air from Siberia began to penetrate, new daily temperature minimums were registered, this caused the negative anomalies of the average monthly air temperature in East-Kazakhstan and Karaganda areas.
In Africa, it was too hot in the north of the continent in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and Sudan, where the average monthly air temperature anomalies have set +2…6° and more. In Algeria the new absolute maximum of the temperature for the continent was registered: +51.3°. In the other territory of North Africa the air temperature roughly corresponded to the norm.
Extremely hot weather is in Egypt since the April. At that moment, as well in May, the average monthly air temperature became the highest on the record, and in June and July, it is the second in the ranged row since 1891. Everywhere in the continent, except south-west (Span and Portugal) and south-east (Balkans, Greece and south of Italy) the average July air temperature exceeded the norm by 2-4° and more. In Oslo the anomaly is +6.1°, Paris - +5.1°, Brussels - +4.9, Riga - +4.8°, Stockholm - +4.6°, Berlin - +3.9°, Prague - +3.7°, Minsk - +2.4°, Kiev – +2.1°. As it is shown, especially large anomalies were formed in the north of the continent. In capitals of Scandinavian countries, the new records of maximum air temperature were registered. The heat, which captured this region, triggered the numerous forest fires. Heat records were beaten also in UK. In London, the temperature maximums were renewed repeatedly, and it took place during several days in a row.
In a most part of USA and Canada, the average monthly air temperature exceeded the norm, but slightly. Only in the west and north-west of USA, as well as in the south-east of Canada the anomalies have set +2-3° and more. In California and Nevada July 2018 is the hottest one on the record, in the neighbouring states of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado the average monthly air temperature approach the proximity of the absolute extremum. In Death Valley (California) the average monthly air temperature has set +42.3°. This is absolute maximum. During 21 days the temperature rose higher 49°, four days in a row reached 53°. Let me remind, that in this region the highest temperature on the Earth was registered, 10 July it reached +56.7°. In the east of Canada in Quebec province the air temperature during several day did not decrease during the day below +33°. The last time such heat was here in summer 2010. At that time and now, it became the cause of dozens of casualties.
In Arctic, the average monthly air temperature is close to the norm. This happened at the background of the abnormally hot weather in Scandinavia, in the European north, north-east of Russia and abnormally cold weather in the north of Siberia and Canada.
In Moscow the average monthly air temperature is +20.5°, anomaly is +2.2°.
The average monthly air temperature of the Northern Hemisphere is above the norm. It comes to the first five highest ranged values on the record.
Below the norm, as in the previous months, the air temperature appeared in the mid-latitudes of the Pacific ocean and in the tropical latitudes of the Atlantic ocean, also in the north-west of Indian one.

Ocean Surface Temperature.

Although La Niña has finished its existence, the average SST anomaly of the Pacific ocean in the Northern Hemisphere continue to decrease and now is less than 0.5°. Abnormally cold water is being observing in the central part of the ocean and along the south-east coast of Asia, abnormally warm – in the Kuroshio stream and in the north of the ocean (Bering sea). Here the positive anomalies exceed +2°.
In the Atlantic ocean, as in the previous month, the average SST temperature is close to the norm. It is achieved in the opposition of the cold and very cold water in the east of tropical latitudes, also in the mid-latitudes to the east of Canada and warm water in Gulf stream, especially along the European coast and Barents sea, where anomalies exceed +2°.


In the European territory of Russia, except Russian North, it was the norm and more of the atmosphere precipitations over the month. The norm regards to the central area and High and Middle Volga areas, more – to Rostov area, Low Volga area and North Caucasus. In Kostroma and Yaroslavl areas over the first decade the monthly precipitations norm has fallen. In the second decade, the same and even more happened in Kursk, Smolensk and Belgorod areas. Volgograd impresses, where over the second decade up to three monthly rain norms have fallen. During the month, the rains were inundating the south of Russia, where the precipitations norms in some places were exceeded in 3 times and more. Heavy showers brought some time up to 50-80mm of rain over the day. At the same time, in some ETR areas the drought was kept. So, in Bashkiria it caused the potential decreasing of the grain crops.
In the most part of Siberia, it was less the norm of precipitations, except north and south areas. In Taimyr, they exceeded the norm in 3 times and more. But, Transbaikalia particularly impresses, where during the month the rains were constant. Such abundance of the precipitations one have not seen more than 80 years. Local meteorologists called these rains the “historical”, because they fall once in 100 years. Already in the first decade in some areas of the region the monthly precipitations norm was over fulfilled, in general over the month it was exceeded in 3 times and more. Damage from the rains is assessed in billions of roubles.
Far East has got a lot of rains. If this is routine phenomenon for the south areas (Amur area, Primorye region and south of Khabarovsk region), here the norms were exceeded in 2-3 times, but in the north (republic of Yakutia and Magadan area) the monthly precipitations sums exceeded the norms in 2 times and more, it is seldom phenomenon.
The summer monsoon is dominating in the East, South-East and South Asia. In the Central China the norm were exceeded in 2-3 times, in Japan – approximately in 2 times. The rains caused the most damage to country of Rising Sun. As a result of floods, the hundreds of people perished and a lot of people were killed by sunstrokes. Except monsoon, the typhoons inundated the central and south areas of Japan by rains, as a result it was cumulated up to 1000mm of precipitation. Showers caused floods and landslides.
Every day rain inundated countries of South-East Asia, where over the day it was cumulated more than 100mm of precipitation, over the month it exceeded the norm in 3-4 times. In Myanmar, more than 150 thousand people left their homes because of floods, tens of them have drown.  In Laos, it was dyke breach, it caused losses of tens of people, thousands of facilities were damaged.
Heavy monsoon rains are inundating India and Pakistan. In some places the precipitation norms are exceeded in 1.5-2.0 times and more. Indian specialists note, that these showers are the heaviest over the last 60 years. They caused numerous floods, hundreds of people and livestock perished. Authorities restricted the swimming at the famous Goa beaches.
Dry weather dominates in the Middle East and in the most part of the Central Asia. Only in some areas of Kazakhstan and Kirgizia the rains fell, which caused the precipitations norm over the month.
In North Africa, the rains were observed only to the south of Sahara. Here they have set approximately the norm. In other subcontinental territory, it was absence of rains.
Extremely hot weather in the most part of Europe was followed by drought. The drought is in Germany. Here is less the half of monthly norm of precipitations over July. For UK, the first half of the summer is the driest one on the record. In countries of Scandinavia, Central Europe and Italy there are areas, where there were some millimetres of rain over the month. However, heavy showers came here from time to time, for instance, to Germany in the end of the first decade, or to Italian Alps in the beginning of the second decade. At this time it was cumulated up to 50mm of precipitations and more over the day. France has got the norm of precipitations. East and South-East Europe have got a lot of rains in the middle of summer. In Balkan countries, there were cumulated 3-4 norms, in Belarus and Ukraine – 1.5-2.5 norms over the month. Heavy showers (more than 50mm over the day) fell in Romania, Belarus, Lithuania and west of Ukraine.
In the Pacific coast of USA and Canada the dry weather was all month. A lot of US meteorological stations in this region registered entire absence of precipitations. In other territory of these countries, it was the norm of precipitations, as a rule. And only in the south of Canada in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario provinces and in US states Virginia and North Carolina they exceeded the norms in 1.5-2.5 times. Dry weather took place in the most part of Mexico and only in the north of the country, precipitations have set approximately the norm.
In Moscow it was 92mm of rains over the month, it is roughly July norm. 8 July in Moscow the new daily precipitations maximum was registered – 49mm. Absolute daily maximum for July is 54mm and belongs to 3 July 1982.
Hydrometcentre of Russia