Air Temperature.

The last summer month continued to please the European Russians with the warm, and sometimes hot weather. In every of three month decades the average monthly air temperature exceeded the norm by 2-4°. During the month, the temperature rose repeatedly above +30°. The new temperature maximums were registered. At the end of the month, when the sun were noticeably lower in the sky, than in the middle of the summer, and the air must have been cooler, but this did not happen. It became to heat even more, especially in the south. However, the first breath of the autumn was sensed by the Central Russia and Upper Volga inhabitants. In the middle of the second and beginning of the third decade in Volga-Vyatka region, Bashkortostan republic, Smolensk, Tula, Moscow areas the first frosts were registered.
Another situation was observed beyond the Urals. In the first decade in Siberia and Far East, the air was cooled substantially than usual. The average decade temperature in some places became by 2-4° below the norm. The daily minimums were registered from Turukhansk in the north to Novosibirsk in the south and Chukotka in the east. Then the cold retreated and all region, especially in Siberia found itself in the abnormally warm weather, which caused the exceeding of air temperature norms by 2-6° in the second and third decades. In Krasnoyarsk district and along the Arctic coast the new temperature maximums were registered.
As a result, in the most part of Russia the average August air temperature exceeded the norm. In the European territory, in the south of East Siberia, in Transbaikalia, Taimyr and the north of Yakutia – by 2-3°. It was slightly cooler in the south-east of the Ural and south-west of Siberia federal districts, also in Sakhalin, Kuril islands and Kamchatka. The average monthly air temperature, averaged by all Russia territory, has got 6-8 range among the highest values on the record.
With the ending of August the calendar summer 2018 has ended. For Central Russia inhabitants it appeared the warm, in some areas very warm (the average monthly air temperature anomalies over the summer season have set +2…3°), but not hot one. Although the heat here is associated with the summer 2010, which is the hottest on the record. Its average temperature exceeds the same value of the present summer by 3.5°. Even the summer of the before last year the temperature was higher than now. The average summer temperature in the Central federal district was placed only in the end of the second ten the highest values on the record. However, the temperature close to +30° and higher was the frequent phenomena of the last summer in the European territory of Russia. In the Northern Caucasus, the summer 2018 is the second warmest on the record. It was warmer only in the summer 2010.
Another region, where it was noticeably warmer than usual, became the north areas of the Urals, Siberia and Far East. Here in Taimyr and Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous districts and in Yakutia republic the anomalies exceeded +2.0…3.5°. In other Russian territory, the average summer air temperature became close to the norm. Perhaps, only in the south of the Far East (Sakhalin and Kuril islands) in was slightly below it.
Although, as is what mentioned above, in most part of Russia the average summer air temperature exceeded the norm, or it was close to it, it is nothing surprising that in general in Russia Federation it was situated in the margin of the first five highest values on the record.
In August, it was hot in the east of Asia. In Mongolia, east and central provinces of China, South Korea and Japan the average monthly air temperatures exceeded the norms by 2-3°. In Japan only in the northern island of Hokkaido it was relatively cold, but in the other territory the extreme heat dominated, which came here during previous months. During the August, repeatedly the new temperature maximums were registered, including Tokyo.
In India, the active monsoon and rare appeared sun caused the relatively fresh weather. In the most part of the country, the average monthly air temperature anomalies are negative, though small.
In the most part of the Middle East and in the adjoined areas of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Turkmenia the heat dominated. The temperature norms were exceeded by 2-4°.
In the most part of Africa, the temperature corresponded to the norm. Only in the north in Egypt and Libya it in some place exceeded the norm by 1-3°.
As before, seldom heat was kept in Europe. In all continent, the average monthly air temperatures are above the norm. More of that, they almost everywhere (except north areas of Scandinavia and UK) exceed the respect norms by 2-4°. August since its first day has got the heat relay from July. In all continent in the different days of the month, the numerous maximum temperature records were registered. In Spain the temperature approached close to 50°, in Portugal crossed the 40° mark, in Germany – 35°. It was informed, in many countries on the human losses from the heat strokes and their consequences. The single distinction from July became the saving nights, which appeared noticeably cooler. August of 2018 is the hottest in the continental record.
In the most part of North American continent, the average monthly air temperature is close to the norm. In Canada only in the south-east in Quebec, Newfoundland and partially Ohio provinces average monthly air temperature became warmer the norm by 2-3°, but in the north – slightly colder than usual. In USA, the norms are noticeably exceeded in the south-west (states of New-Mexico, Arizona, south of California) and north-east from New York to Chicago. Here the anomalies are more than 2°. In the centre of the country from Utah to Missouri and Arkansas, the average monthly air temperatures are below the norms.
Once again the air temperature of Arctic is rising. In the opposition of the abnormally warm weather in the east sector and abnormally cold in the west one the east won. The average monthly air temperature in Arctic in August exceeded the norm by more than one degree and has got 5-7 range among the highest values on the record.
The average summer air temperature of the Northern Hemisphere is placed in the ranged line in the margin of the highest values. Except abovementioned Russian territories, it was too hot in the most part of Europe, West Asia, north of China and west of USA. Europeans have got the hottest summer in the continent history. In China, its average temperature reached the absolute maximum, firstly registered in 2010, in USA it enter to the five highest values. If in continents the summer was, as a rule, warmer the norm, in the most part of tropical and mid-latitudes of the oceans it became colder the norm.
In Moscow the August average temperature is 19.8°, anomaly if 3.4°. This result is 5th in the ranged line since 1891. It succeeds 2° to August 2010, the hottest month in the capital’s history, and other famous hot Augusts: 1972, 1938 and 2007. One can consider this summer as abnormally warm (anomaly is more than 2°). Its average temperature is placed in the margin of the first and second ten highest values on the record. Only June did not allow to rise in the ranged line, which temperature became close to the norm.
Ocean Surface Temperature.
The average monthly SST of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans continue to approaching to the norm. In Atlantic ocean, it has already reached the norm, in Pacific ocean – exceeds the norm by 0.3°.
In the Pacific ocean, the abnormally cold water is observed along the equator, although La Niña has already been finished. Another area, where the water temperature is below the norm – there are subtropical latitudes, and further to the north the temperature in the most part of the area is higher the norm. It takes place especially along the coast in Japanese, Okhotsk and Bering seas. Here in some places the anomalies exceed +2°.
One can say that the same situation is in the Atlantic ocean, except the fact, that negative anomalies here is observing in mid-latitudes, together with equatorial and subtropical ones. In the last case, one can consider them as the substantial. SST along Gulf Stream, in the Mediterranean sea, and in the north of the ocean is noticeably higher the norm, in Arctic – by 2-3°.
August in the European territory of Russia became very dry. In the South federal district, there are areas where it was not even one drop of rain during the month. In the most part of this vast territory the monthly precipitations sums have set less the half of the norm. Only in the north of ETR and in foothills of Caucasus they cumulated the norm and more (in Arkhangelsk and Nalchik – almost two monthly norms). Sometimes the rains here were very heavy. So, for instance, in Karelia and Perm the new daily maximums were registered.
In the Urals and further to the east it was a lot of rains (norm and more). Intensive rains fell in all West Siberia, in the south of Krasnoyarsk district, in Khakassia, Tyva and Transbaikalia. In some places, here the precipitations sums over the month have set 159% of the norm.
In the Far East the approximate norm of the precipitations is in the south of Yakutia, Amur area and some areas of Khabarovsk district, whereas other its territories (along the Okhotsk sea coast) and Primorye did not get their norm of precipitations. However, some heavy rains took place here.
Asian monsoon is active, all three its branches (east, south-east and Indian one) bring a lot of rains. They inundated China, where in the east and north of the country the precipitations norms were exceeded in 1.5-3.0 times. In Gansu province, the rains caused the mudslides, which destroyed the crops, roads, and caused the human losses. Thousands of people were evacuated, tens of thousands suffered. Locals consider these showers as the heaviest over the last 10 years.
Heavy showers inundated the South-East Asia. In Thailand, Laos, Myanmar the caused the heavy floods with more than one million people suffered, with casualties. Water level in the rivers reached the highest marks over the last 50 years. Myanmar did not see it more than thirty years. The precipitations norms were exceeded in 1.5-3.0 times.
Monsoon showers caused the heavy flood in the south of India. In Kerala state it was named as “flood of the century”, the same was not observed here almost 100 years. Near one million people left their houses, hundreds wrecked. The rains fell all month long, but especially heavy the two waves were: in the middle and in the end of the month. Monthly precipitations sums exceeded the norms in 2-3 times. Surprisingly, but central and north-west states of India suffer from absence of rains.
It was absence of precipitations in the Middle East. Only in Transcaucasia in some places, there were showers, which caused traffic collapse in the west of Georgia. They partially inundated Batumi. In Tbilisi, the monthly precipitations have set 1.5 norms. In the last day of the month, the snow fell in the east of Turkey.
In the Central Asia, it was not rains in Afghanistan and in most part of Central Asia republics, in Kazakhstan they have set norm and more. In Alma-Ata is 1.5 of the norm, in Kustanai – more than two.
The norm and more of the precipitations are in the west of Africa. In Niger, where more than 1.5 of precipitations norm appeared, the floods took place, which inundated the thousands he of the agricultural fields. More than 50 thousand people suffered from disaster, with tens of human losses. The north-east of Egypt was without rains.
In Europe, the August became very dry. In the most part of the continent the monthly precipitations sums did not reached to the half of the norm, in the east (Moldova, Ukraine) it was absence of rains (Kharkov, Kherson, Kishinev). Only north areas of Scandinavia, partially UK and Baltic countries have got the precipitations norm. In the middle of the month, the rains fell in the continent and brought up to 50mm of precipitations to Slovenia and 20mm to Lithuania. Heat and drought caused the numerous fires in Spain, Portugal, Greece, Sweden, with hundreds of human losses. Media informed that in Germany because of drought the lowest crop over the 100 years is predicting.
In Canada, except northern territories with the norm of precipitations and more, the dry weather dominated all month. In the west in Britain Columbia province, it was only one third of precipitations norm, in some places even less. Such dry and hot weather caused numerous fires. Bred in these conditions, wood bugs fretted many trees and they fired like smoke grenades, the smoke was dispersed to 500 km.
The west US states suffered the same fate. In California, it was absence of rains. The fires in the north of the state were recognized as the heaviest ones in history. Tens of thousands of people were evacuated. According to the president’s decision, the emergency rule was declared in the state. In other territory, it was abundance of precipitations. In Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas and north-east they exceeded the norm in 2-3 times. Wisconsin has got maximum of precipitations, where over the several days the third of year norm was fallen.
Heavy rains caused numerous floods in Venezuela.
In Moscow over the month 28mm of rain fell, which is roughly one third of monthly norm. Over the summer it was cumulated 176mm of rain, this is less than half of the norm. One can recognize the summer in the capital as dry.