Air Temperature.
In the European territory of Russia, the beginning of autumn actually meant the summer continuation. In the first decade of the month, the air temperature maximums were registered in the Central and Central-Chernozem regions, in Crimea and in the north-west. The temperature were rising above 30°. The average decade anomalies in some places exceeded 5-6°. The same situation was observed in the north-east of the country. The summer warmth was kept here during the second decade. Once again, the maximum temperatures were registered in Chukotka and north-west of the European territory of the country. In the last decade the warmth, as before, dominated in the extreme north-east of Russia, whereas temperature conditions, close to autumn, came to ETR, and average temperatures of the third decade did not differ obviously from the norms, though exceeded them, as before. At this time, the new temperature maximums in Siberia and Yakutia replaced the cold weather beyond the Urals.
Altogether with this, the September frosts became not so seldom, as in August. They were registered not only beyond the Urals, which is usual for this time of the year, but in all European territory, including the south of Rostov and Volgograd areas, also in Primorye.
As a result of such monthly temperature distribution, the average September temperature value countrywide closed the first three highest values on the record, conceded two upper lines of 2016 and 2005 respectively. In the north of Far East federal district it was second warmest September (the first one is September 2003). In the Central federal district, it is the warmest one over the last 80 years. Its average temperature is close to the record values and is situated in the 4th line of the range row since 1891. In September 2018 in all European territory, Urals, along the Arctic coast and Chukotka the average monthly air temperature exceeded the norm by 2-4° and more. Except some areas in the north of Primorye, Sakhalin, Yakutia and south Siberian areas along the Kazakhstan border, the average monthly air temperature is above the norm everywhere.
In the east and south-east of Asia the average monthly air temperature became close to the norm. In some places, for instance, in Japan, south of China and Indochina the average monthly air temperature anomalies are positive (1° and more), in some places – negative (Mongolia and central area of China).
In the most part of India, it was colder than usual, whereas in the majority of the Middle East countries the average monthly air temperatures exceeded the norms by 2° and more (in Iran and Saudi Arabia – in some places by 3-4°).
The air temperature in the Central Asia is close to the norm. In the north and north-east of Kazakhstan it is slightly lower the norm, and in the other territory – higher the norm.
Approximately the air temperature norm is in the most part of the Northern Africa. In some places along the Mediterranean and Red seas coast it higher the norm by 2°.
Summer warmth does not want to leave Europe. After the hottest summer in continent’s history September, as before, surprised with the air temperatures above 30-35°. New temperature maximums were registered in the east of the continent (Ukraine, Belarus). From Portugal to Urals, the average monthly air temperature exceeded the norm by 2-4°. In Lion the anomaly is 3.4°, Kiev – 3.3°, Berlin – 3.2°, Geneva and Warsaw – 3.0°, Belgrade – 2.7°, Prague and Goteborg – 2.5°. The average September 2018 temperature in Europe was situated immediately after the first three highest values over the 128-years record. It was warmer in the continent only in September 2016, 2011 and 2006.
The last September in Canada appeared among very cold months. Its average temperature is below the norm. It has happened last time 25 years ago. Central and north areas of the country were captured by the negative temperature anomalies. In the north-west they were formed as particularly large (-2…-4°).
In USA September 2018, per contra, became obviously warmer than usual. It is the second warmest in the XXI century and forth one – on the record. In the most part of the territory of the country, the average monthly air temperature is above the norm, especially in the west and east – substantially (anomalies +2…3° and more). In the Atlantic coast states and in the west in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Oklahoma September 2018 is the second-third warmest on the record. In Alaska, it was the warmest September in XXI century and the third on the record.
The abnormally warmth is kept in Arctic. The average monthly air temperature of September is above the norm approximately by 2° and is situated in the 4th line of the range data row on the record. In September the area of Arctic marine ice reached the summer minimum, which in this year, as NASA informed, is below the norm by 1.63 million square kilometres. The scientist have calculated, that the ice cover of Arctic since the end of the seventieth years of the last century annually was loosing about 54 million of sq. km of its area.
In Moscow the average monthly air temperature is 14.6°, anomaly is 3.6°. This is second warmest September on the record of the Russian capital, the first is the September 1938.
Ocean Surface Temperature.
The neutral phase of the Southern oscillation is continuing. In El Niño - La Niña area the average SST anomalies are from -0.2° to + 0.3°.
Very warm water is being observed along all Northern Sea Route. In the beginning of the route (Barents and Kara seas) and in the end (East-Siberian, Chukchi and Bering seas) the SST anomalies exceed 2-3°.
In the Atlantic ocean, the cold of tropical and mid-latitudes oppose the abnormally warm water in subtropics, especially along west US coast. In the Pacific ocean, in the tropical latitudes also negative SST anomalies take place, but unlike Atlantic, the warmth prevails the cold in the mid-latitude belt.
Water temperature of the Mediterranean and Black seas resorts is substantially higher the norm.
In September in the European territory the atmosphere precipitations were in the norm and more, but it is in general in the north and south. In Vologda area, they have set 1.5, Krasnodar region – more than 2, in Crimea in some places – more than three norms. Showers in Crimea were especially heavy. Here more than 100mm of rain fell over the two days. In the Central-Chernozem and Volga areas, the rains were seldom phenomena. Their continuously absence caused the drought in Chuvashia.
The Urals have got noticeably less the norm of precipitations, in the most part of Siberia they are close to the norm and more. The last regards to the south areas of Krasnoyarsk district, republic of Tyva and Transbaikalia. The rains were here very heavy, there were 30-50 mm of precipitations cumulated.
Far East has got particularly much of atmosphere moisture. In the east of Yakutia, Magadan area, Chukotka and in the north of Khabarovsk district is some places the monthly norms were exceeded in 2-3 times. Only Primorye and Sakhalin in September had a deficiency of rains.
In the most part of China, Japan and South Korea there were the lot of rains. In the beginning of the month near forty thousand people suffered from the showers in the south of Celestial Empire. But, north-east of the country and DPRK were free from heavy rains. Here the precipitations have set near 50% of the norm.
In the most part of South-East Asia, it was less the norm of the rains. Typhoon “Manghut” brought many precipitations to Philippines, which caused numerous landslides, hundreds of people were blocked under the obstructions. The precipitations norms in this country were exceeded in 1.5-3.0 times.
The summer monsoon in India keeps it strength. In many points the monthly precipitations sums substantially exceeded the norm. In the north of the country the heavy rains were transferred to snowfalls, followed by rivers’ water levels risings caused the floods, human losses and heavy damages.
In the Central Asia countries, there were the few rains. Only in some areas of the east of Kazakhstan and Kirgizia the precipitations norm was reached. In Turkmenia and south of Uzbekistan it was absence of rains, this regards also to the Middle East.
Usually dry weather in the Northern Africa was interrupted by rains. In the Mediterranean coast countries and to the south of Sahara the monthly precipitations norms were substantially exceeded. In Tunisia and Nigeria, the floods caused the human losses.
In the most part of Europe September was dry. Only in the Central Europe (Czech, Austria, Hungary, UK) the monthly precipitations sums reached the norm and more in some places. In general, precipitations have set less the norm by 50%.
There were plenty of rains in USA. The last September – is the third “wettest” on the record, the east and centre of the country starkly contrasted with the west by the precipitations quantity. From Atlantic to Kansas, Oklahoma, south of Texas and Louisiana there were plenty of rains. In some places, they exceeded the norms in 2-3 times, to the west it was absence of rains. In California and Nevada, this is third driest September on the record. In the most part of Canada, the precipitations are in the norm and more, it is its deficiency in the west.
In Moscow it was cumulated 77mm of the atmosphere moisture, this is within the norm.
According to the data of MSU observatory, the last September in Moscow and the area became the sunniest one in the present century. The sun was shining during 206 hours instead of the norm of 147 hours. Before the sunniest month was September 2014 with 204 hours of sun shining.