Air Temperature.

In the beginning of November, the unusually warm weather was kept in the north-west of Russia. The new air temperature maximums were registered from Murmansk to Kaliningrad. The warmth anomalies of the first decade have set here +2…5°. But then the cold came and although in the Russian North along the Barents sea in the second decade the warm weather dominated, in the other part of the European Russia the average monthly air temperature anomalies became negative. In the third decade everywhere, from Barents to Black sea it was noticeably colder than usual. The average monthly air temperature over the decade is below the norm by 3-6°. As a result, the air temperature in the Central, South federal district and in the south of the Volga district per month became below the norm by 1-3°, it is not seldom phenomenon. Over the 18 years of XXI century, the same and colder November was repeated here for the 4th time, the last one – in the year before.

Warm weather in Siberia in the Arctic coast adjoined with the cold one in the other territory, where the average monthly air temperature became lower the norm by 1-2°. In the Far East, it was abnormally warm. In Chukotka, Sakhalin and Khabarovsk district, the new warmth records were registered. The decade anomalies reached +8…12°, the month ones - +2…7°.
In the East, South-East and South Asia the average monthly air temperature exceeded the norm, in some places – in the north-east of China, in Thailand and India – by 2° and more. In some points, the new maximum temperature - daily and monthly absolute ones - records were registered. In India, the last November shared the first ten of the warmest months on the record.
The warm weather was spread in all Middle East. Particularly it was obvious in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, where the anomalies exceeded +2°. Approximately the same situation is in the North Africa, where the air was heated above the norm per month, in some places by 1-2°.
Quite another weather was in the Central Asia. The average monthly air temperature from Kazakhstan to Turkmenia was below the norm by 2-3°. The temperature fell to -20° and lower.
In November, the warmth pressure to Europe slightly decreased. Although here the average air temperature is above the norm, as usual, but not so apparently, as in summer and in the beginning of autumn. Anomalies more than 2° were kept only in the centre of the continent (Hungary, Austria, Slovakia, Czech Republic). Some days the air was heated up to the record values: Leipzig, Berlin, Dresden, Brussels, Edinburg, Trondheim.
In USA and Canada, the last November is the second coldest in this century. In the centre of Canada the average monthly air temperature did not reach the norm by 4-6°. It is below the norm everywhere, except the west territories. In British Columbia and Yukon, the anomalies have set +2…5°. They are approximately the same in Alaska, where the average monthly air temperature came to the first ten highest values on the record. It substantially differs from other US territory, where it is below the norm by 2-5°. Especially extreme cold was in the south of Texas and Mississippi and in the centre of the country from Kansas to Oklahoma and Kentucky.
The air temperature above the norm appeared in the Central America countries and in the south of Mexico, in some places by 1-2° and more.
The autumn in the Northern Hemisphere appeared very warm. Its average monthly air temperature has 3-4 rank among the highest values on the record, i.e. since 1891. The main contribution to this achievement was made by October and September, the average monthly air temperature of which came to the first three highest ranged values (with the accuracy up to 0.1°). The largest positive temperature anomalies of the autumn were registered in the north of Russia and in the east sector of Arctic (+4…6°). The temperature in the north-east of Africa, Middle East, Central Europe and north of Scandinavia is above the norm by 2°. Canada and most part of USA have got the cold autumn. It was abnormally warm only in Alaska – it is the second warmest autumn in the history. In Canada, such cold autumn nobody saw over the last 25 years. In Europe, the last autumn is the second warmest one on the record, in Arctic – the third one and in the North Africa – the fifth one.
In Russia the autumn 2018 is the second warmest one on the record, only autumn 2005 was warmer. Also the last autumn has the second rank in the Far East in the third one in the Russian North.
In Moscow the average monthly air temperature of November is -0.6°, anomaly is +0.5, the average air temperature of the autumn - +7.5 and +2.1 respectively. The autumn in the capital is the sixth warmest since 1891. The warmest autumn is 1938, in the present century – 2008.

Ocean Surface Temperature.

In the Pacific ocean, the rising of the SST anomaly of the Northern Hemisphere is continuing. Now it reached the second maximum, after the record of 2005. It is implementing by the north and mid-latitudes, as in the previous months, and by the equatorial latitudes, where the SST anomalies reached +1° and more in the area, which is the El Niño indicator. I.e. one can consider the apparent movement to the development of the new warm phase of the Southern oscillation. At the same time, it is early to declare the beginning of the new El Niño, because the atmosphere movements do not correspond to the emerge conditions for this phenomenon – Passat is still strong and does not allow the warm water to approach further to the east, to America coast.
The average SST anomaly is being kept at the previous level, i.e. it is slightly positive. The substantial part of the ocean is occupied by the abnormally cold water. Such ocean condition is continuing for a long time, it can be consequence of the main circulation ocean flows’ direction change.


The most part of European territory of Russia in November was in the dry weather. Precipitations monthly sums have set, as a rule, less than half of the norm. Only in the south (Northern Caucasus and Crimea) and in the north (Arkhangelsk area and Komi republic) they were close to the norm. At the end of the month, the heavy showers fell in the south of ETR. Record precipitations sums were registered in Krasnodar district and Kalmyk republic. The rains caused the rivers level increasing, inundated streets and buildings. In Novorossiysk, they were followed by the stormy wind. In the middle of November, abundant snowfalls covered Belgorod, Rostov, Volgograd areas, Krasnodar and Stavropol districts. The snow depth exceeded 20cm. Such “thick snow blanket” is rare gest here even in the height of the winter.
It was the abundance of the precipitations beyond the Urals. Except extreme north-east of the country, everywhere precipitations reached the norm or exceeded it. Heavy snowfalls were noted in Khabarovsk and Kamchatka districts, Magadan and Sakhalin
areas. In the beginning of the month, the abundant rains inundated the capital of Primorye – Vladivostok. Rivers run along the roads, flushing the cars and booths.
In Mongolia and Japan, it was mainly dry, in the vast Chinese territory one can find relatively wet and dry areas. Dry weather dominated in the north-east of the country, in the areas, adjoin Mongolia and Russia, wet one – in the east and west. Here the precipitations norms were exceeded in 2 times and more. In Qinghai province, which is situated in Tibet foothills, the new snow amount records were registered. In the middle of November, the snow depth rose almost by 2 meters.
Indochina countries are in the winter monsoon and they have a few atmosphere precipitations. But some showers took place. In Indonesia, in Sumatra island, the rains caused the floods in the beginning of the month. The water in the local rivers rose by more than 6m and inundated the thousands of houses.
Because of the same reason it is dry weather in India. Tropical cyclone “Gadga” attacked the south of the country and neighbouring Ceylon, it brought a lot of rains – up to 1.5-2.0 monthly norms.
The cyclones did not reached the west areas of Kazakhstan and it was a few atmosphere precipitations. But the east of the country and other Central Asia countries to the south were the territory of the rains and snowfalls. Here the monthly precipitations sums have set the norm and more, sometimes it was too much snow. Snowdrifts blocked the road traffic in the Kirgizia capital Bishkek and in the mountainous roads.
Something unimaginable was in this month in the Middle East. Arabian Peninsula was inundated by rains. In Sharjah half-year precipitations norm fell over the day. In Mecca, the rains made the rivers, and in the middle of the Arabian desert the flood lakes emerged. The showers inundated the Riyadh airport, the capital of Saudi Arabia kingdom. The showers in Iraq caused the floods, heaviest over the last half-century. The floods demolished Jordan and south-east of Turkey, with casualties. Precipitations sums in November exceeded the norm in 3-4 times in these territories.
Central, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia have got a few atmosphere precipitations – approximately half of the norm. But the west and south of the continent was inundated by rains. Here the monthly precipitations norms were exceeded in 1.5-2.0 times. Heavy showers in the middle of the moths inundated Spain, especially east and north coast of the country. The floods blocked the road traffic, caused the casualties. In Sicilia, the raging disaster in the beginning of the month caused the tens of human losses. In the same time, the rains inundated Rome, where it was more than monthly norm of precipitations during the first week of the month. Extremely a few snow was this time in Scandinavian countries. In the north of Finland the snow depth has set only 4-5 cm, the norm is 20cm. Some snow fell in Ukraine and Moldova in November.
Heavy snowfalls fell in Canada. They have set the snow depth up to 25cm. Heaviest snow fell in the Atlantic provinces, where it caused the electricity shortages and blocked the airports activities. Here the monthly precipitations sums have set the norm and more. In the centre, it was a few precipitations.
Abundance of rains and snow was in the east states of the USA. Along the Atlantic coast the precipitations norms were exceeded in 2.0-2.5 times. In this area states the monthly precipitations sums shared the first five of the highest values on the record. In the middle of the month, the first snowfall in New York blocked the road traffic. The cars were in the traffic jams for the several hours. To the west from the Great Plains, it was dry weather, in some places it was absence of precipitations. The forest fires were in California, they were recognised as the largest in the state’s history and were characterised by the local authorities as the most lethal over the last 100 years. Tens of the people were lost. More than 600 of state’s territory were completely burned, including Malibu, the lovely resort of the American film stars.
The autumn of 2018 became the second “wettest” in US history, from Texas to Mississippi in the south and to Kansas in the north the autumn precipitations sums reached the maximum.
In Moscow the monthly precipitations sum has set 18mm, or 31% of the norm. Such dry November has not observed in the capital since 1993, which is considered the driest month in the city history. It was only 4mm of precipitations.