Air Temperature

Record-breaking heat that settled in the southern ETR at the end of spring routinely migrated to the beginning of summer. All through the first decade, new air temperature maxima were recorded in the Stavropol and Krasnodar Territories, Crimea and North Caucasus. In the middle of the decade, the heat spread to the central and south-western regions where new records were set as well. The thermometer readings in the Moscow, Kaluga and Ryazan Regions and in some other ones steadily rose to above +30°. The decade-averaged air temperatures exceeded their normal values by 3-5° or more everywhere from Karelia to the Black Sea. The temperature anomalies in this decade were even larger in Yakutia, Eastern Siberia and the north of the Far East (up to 5-8° and above). But the weather was cold between these foci of heat, namely, in the Urals, in Western Siberia, in the Upper Volga and in the south of the Far East.

The same picture was observed in the second decade when the unprecedented temperature maxima were recorded in the ETR and in the east of the country. In this decade, the anomalies became even higher: up to and above +6-8° in the European part, and up to and above +6-10° along the Arctic coast from Taimyr to Chukotka.
In the third decade, the focal locations of warmth and cold remained almost the same. The only changes occurred in the ETR where the positive anomalies decreased, in the east of the central region where the temperature even returned to normal and, importantly, in Western Siberia where the negative anomalies behaved in an opposite way and reached -3…-4° or more.
As for the overall monthly figures, the average air temperature exceeded the normal value by 2-4° or more in the ETR and by 4-8° or more in Yakutia, Eastern Siberia and Chukotka, but was below it in the Urals, in Western Siberia and in the south of the Far East. Averaged over the whole Russian territory, the air temperatures in this June and in June of the previous year were the same so as to share ranks 5 and 6 of the highest ones recorded for the entire period of regular meteorological observations, i.e., since 1891.
In the central region, this month was the hottest June in the XXI century. Its average temperature took the 3-4 position in the ranking list based on 129-year observations: higher than in June 2010 when fantastic heat started to come up in summer. In the North Caucasian and South Federal Districts including the Crimea, June 2019 was the hottest one in history. In the north of the Far East, it was also incomparably warm, while in its south, colder than ever in the XXI century. There, such cold was last observed about a quarter of a century ago in 1993. In the Urals, the sub-normal air temperature was recorded for the second time in this century.
In China, the monthly-averaged air temperatures roughly matched their normal value in most parts and never dropped below it anywhere; yet, last June in some areas turned out to be noticeably warmer than usual. This concerns the capital Beijing, its nearby provinces, the south-west of Tibet and the provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan where the average temperature exceeded the normal value by 2° or more. In South-East Asia, the anomalies were approximately the same, reaching +3…4° in some places.
In India, the temperature in June was close to normal, but the residents of particular country regions suffered from fierce heat. The thermometer readings in Deli could rise to +46°. For a long time, the air temperature remained above +40° in the state of Bihar in the east of the country. Such intense heat resulted due to a delayed monsoon season.
After a brief respite in April, the excessive warmth and even the abnormal heat returned to Europe in June. The monthly-averaged air temperature reached its absolute maximum in the meteorological chronicle of the continent. It was in excess of 0.5° as compared to the previous maximum recorded in June 2003, a precursor of disastrously hot summer that left tens of thousands of Europeans dead. This time, the monthly-averaged air temperature was higher than normal all over the continent, in particular, by 4-6° or more in Central and Eastern Europe. Waves of heat from North Africa first penetrated into Spain, and then spread far eastwards. In France, the temperature exceeded +45° and surpassed the previous temperature maximum in the country as of August 2003. A new temperature maximum was also recorded in Prague. In Germany, the air temperatures above +30…35° were a commonplace event. In the Swiss town of Davos at an elevation of more than 1,500 metres, the thermometer readings closely approached +30°. According to the Austrian meteorological service, this June was the hottest one in the history of the country.
Similar traits were also evident in North Africa where the monthly-averaged temperatures from Algeria to Egypt exceeded the normal value by 2-4°. In West Africa, somewhat lower but still large anomalies were everywhere from Senegal to Ghana; the only exception was Morocco where the weather was moderately cooler than usual.
Heat prevailed in the entire Near and Middle East from the Mediterranean coast to the Indian Ocean and Iran. There, the monthly-averaged temperatures were above normal by 2-4°. In Saudi Arabia, the shade air temperature would sometimes rise as high as +50°.
Central Asia may be divided into the western and eastern parts. In the west of Kazakhstan, in Turkmenistan and in most of Uzbekistan, the monthly averages were higher than usual by 2-3° or more. However, cold air flowing from Siberia to the Eastern Kazakhstan and further to Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the eastern areas of Uzbekistan caused the monthly-averaged temperature to drop below its normal value in these regions.
In most of North America, the average air temperature was close to normal. In the USA, the polar state of Alaska was the only one that continued to surprise. This year, the ever hottest spring in the history of Alaska was superseded by an equally record-breaking first month of summer. Over the whole territory of the state, the monthly-averaged air temperatures were 2-3° or more above normal. The anomaly was +3.3° in Anchorage, and +3.7° in Nome. The heat resulted in numerous fires of such strength that the authorities had to evacuate residents.
In Canada, the weather was very warm in the east of the north-western territories and in the north of the Labrador Peninsula. There, the anomalies of monthly-averaged temperature were 2-4°. At the same time, this June turned out to be colder than usual by 1.0-1.5° in the south-eastern provinces of Quebec and Newfoundland.
Strong heat reigned in Mexico. The monthly-averaged air temperatures in most parts of the country exceeded the normal values by 2° or more. In Mexico City, the anomaly was +2.2°.
Extremely high air temperatures in the arctic regions of Russia, Canada and Alaska made this June the warmest one in the history of meteorological observations in the Arctic. The previous record of June 2012 was beaten by almost 0.5°. According to the International Arctic Centre, the anomalies of monthly-averaged temperature reached +4…5° on the surface of the Chukchi and Bering Seas. This year, the ice around Alaska, normally surviving until June, disappeared as early as in March.
The monthly-averaged air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere regained its record-breaking value (to an accuracy of 0.1°С) first established in June 2016.
In Moscow, the average temperature in June was +19.6°, i.e., 3.0° higher than normal.

Ocean surface temperature

The monthly-averaged surface temperature of the Pacific in the Northern Hemisphere reached the absolute maximum in June. The outcome being largely due to tropical latitudes, an important role had to be played by moderate and northern ones as well. The monthly-averaged water temperature on the surface exceeded the normal value by 1-2° in the Bering and Okhotsk seas off the coast of North America and Japan, and by 2-4° or more in the Bering Strait.
A weak El Nino commenced in autumn 2018 had probably ended. The SST averages in the equatorial belt of the Pacific Ocean were close to normal.
In the Atlantic Ocean, the average SST in the Northern Hemisphere did not change since the previous month, and exceeded the normal value by +0.2°. Abnormally cold water was still observed in moderate latitudes far to the east off the Canadian coast, in the Canary Current, in the north of the Norwegian Sea and partly in the Barents Sea. The water temperature in the Gulf Stream was above-normal.
On the surface of marginal seas such as the Mediterranean, Black or Baltic Sea, the water temperature exceeded the normal value by 1-2°.


Participation was scarce in most parts of the ETR, resulting in soil draughts in certain regions. In the Central Black Earth Region and the southern R/ the Komi Republic), in a number of constituent territories of the Federation in the Volga Region, and in the south of the Central region (the Nizhni Novgorod, Moscow, Yaroslavl, Vladimir and Tula Regions, and the Republics of Mordovia and Udmurtia). This does not mean that there were no heavy rains at all. Thus, the intensity of showers could be as high as 60 mm/day in the Crimea or 25 to 30 mm/day in the North Caucasian Republics and in the Arkhangelsk Region. In the Murmansk Region, snow flakes were still falling from the sky.
Little precipitation was also recorded in the south of the Urals (the Chelyabinsk and Kurgan Regions), but its totals were close to or even slightly above the normal value elsewhere. Snowfalls could still be observed on the Yamal.
Heavy rains passed over Siberia and the south of the Far East. In the Trans-Baikal, Primorye, the south of the Khabarovsk Territory, Amur and Irkutsk Regions, Sakhalin and the south of Kamchatka, these rains would bring up to 30-50 mm of precipitation per day. New daily precipitation totals were recorded. Occasional outstanding rains persisted for several days, and caused rivers to overflow their banks and to flood large adjacent areas. Such severe flooding occurred in the Irkutsk Region. A number of settlements were completely washed away, and the fatalities were reported. The precipitation amounts surpassed their normal monthly figures in the Omsk and Novosibirsk Regions as well as Altai and Kamchatka Territories, in excess of 2-3 times in some areas of the Irkutsk Region.
Many rains were reported in certain areas of China. In the eastern and southern provinces of the country and in Kashgaria, the monthly precipitation totals exceeded the normal value by 1.5-2.5 times or more. In the provinces of Guangdong and Jiangxi, rain showers caused floods affecting millions of people. Prolonged showers took place in the southern Japanese island of Kyushu. A new record-breaking amount of precipitation totals for June was reported there, with up to 300 mm of rainwater per day observed in some areas.
In most of South-East Asia, the weather was dry. Yet, the monthly precipitation totals in certain areas of Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia and the Philippines reached the normal value or exceeded it by 2-3 times in some places.
In India, the Weather Service reported a week delay in the summer monsoon this year. For this reason, the monthly precipitation totals in most parts of the country were less than their normal value. The only states to consume normal or excessive precipitation amounts were Kerala in the south, Bihar in the east, and Kashmir. In the southern regions of Pakistan neighbouring the latter state, showers were also observed.
In Kazakhstan, the weather was dry in most parts. Rainy areas were chiefly in the east of the country where the normal precipitation amounts were exceeded by 1.5-2.0 or more times in places. The multiples were nearly the same in the south of the Central Asian republics.
In the Near and Middle East and in North Africa, the weather was dry as it should have been in this time of year. Turkey was the only country to receive rains.
Very few rains fell in the territory of Europe. The Scandinavian countries, Great Britain and certain regions of France were the only exceptions where the precipitation totals reached the normal value or exceeded it. In the east of Britain, rains caused floods, whereas in the south-east of France, they were accompanied with intense hails resulting in serious damages to agriculture.
A lot of atmospheric moisture went to the central and eastern states of the USA. There, the normal precipitation amounts were exceeded by 1.5-2.0 times or more. Everywhere from Missouri to West Virginia, the monthly precipitation totals were included in the Top Ten of highest values ever recorded in the history of meteorological observations. In contrast, dry weather prevailed in the states of the west coast. No rains at all fell in many areas of California. A similar picture was observed in Mexico: normal precipitation amounts in the centre and in the east, and almost no precipitation in the west. In Canada, the precipitation totals were normal to excessive in the central and northern regions, and very low in the west. According to Canadian authorities, the weather in the province of Alberta was driest for 40 years causing numerous fires of such a scale that their smoke propagated through the Atlantics and reached Europe. Snow was still falling in the province of British Columbia and in the northern territories.
In Moscow, 64 mm of atmospheric moisture was recorded amounting to 85% of the normal figure. The weather was dry for most of June, the main volume of precipitation attributed to the last days of the month when 50 mm of rain, which is ¾ of the normal monthly figure, fell just in three days.