Air Temperature

Exceptional heat keeping the ETR enthralled in June did not subside for most of July. In the first and second decades of the month, the decade-averaged temperature anomalies were +2-6° and more in the ETR, and the heat crossed the 40° mark in the south of Russia. New daily temperature maxima were recorded in the Crimea, in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, in the Rostov, Volgograd and Astrakhan Regions, in the North Caucasus and in Kalmykia, as well as in some north-western regions of the country such as Karelia, the Yaroslavl and Leningrad Regions including St-Petersburg where the coastal waters in the Gulf of Finland heated above +26°. The monthly-averaged air temperature in the ETR tailed the Top Ten of the highest ranked values since 1891, and was 2° below the fantastic value recorded in July 2010.
The average July temperature in the Asian territory of Russia occupies an even higher position, closing up the Top Five of record-breaking achievements and yielding only a few tenths of degree to July 1998. The most impressive anomalies of monthly-averaged temperatures, up to +3-5° and above, were reported in Yakutia and in the Far East. New daily maxima were recorded multiple times in Chukotka, Kamchatka, Primorye, in the south of the Khabarovsk Territory, on Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. The weather remained as hot as +30-38° for two or more weeks in some places. In the south of the Far Eastern Federal District, this July was the hottest in the entire history of meteorological observations.
Nevertheless, Russia was not deprived of record-breaking colds: these were observed in the Arkhangelsk Region, in the Nenets, Yamal-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Districts, in the north-east of Yakutia, as well as in the north and south-west of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, resulting even in slight frosts down to -1° from time to time. In the first and second decades, the decade-averaged temperatures were subnormal in the Urals, and in the third one, the same turned to be true for the Russian North and Kolyma as well.
In the outcome, the average July temperature in Russia was appointed the fifth highest since 1891, with July 2010 at the top position. In the ETR, as well as in the south of Yakutia and of the Far East, the normal monthly-averaged temperatures were exceeded by 2-4 or more degrees, whereas in the Urals and in the eastern regions of the European north, the weather turned out to be somewhat colder than usual in terms of the monthly averages.
The air temperature was above-normal everywhere in eastern Asia: by 2-3° and more in Mongolia, in the north of China and Japan, and in the most of the Korean Peninsula, and by about 1° in the remaining territories. In China, this July was the hottest in the history of meteorological observations since 1891, beating the record achievement of July 2010. Let us remind that the June was deemed the second hottest in this area. Thus, the summer season as a whole is likely to become one of the hottest in the meteorological chronicle of China.
The monsoon that set in on the Hindustan Peninsula prevented the earth surface from its warming by the Sun. For this reason, the average air temperature was subnormal in a large territory of the peninsula, especially in the south, or about normal in the rest of it.
The weather was extremely hot all over the Near and Middle East where the normal temperatures were exceeded by 2-4° in a vast territory. On the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, the thermometer readings rose above +43-45°, and this was the cause of numerous fires.
In the countries of Central Asia, the monthly-averaged temperature was significantly higher than normal, by about 2-4°. New temperature maxima, including the monthly ones, were recorded in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. For example, the new maximum temperature in July became +46.8° in Ashgabat; moreover, the temperature at a certain location in Turkmenistan was higher than +48°. The air in Kazakhstan sometimes heated above +40°. On the other hand, new temperature minima were recorded in the middle of the month by a number of stations in the north of the country, and the monthly averages in those locations were also above-normal but to a less noticeable degree: 1.0-1.5° higher than normal.
The weather in North Africa was hot. At times, the thermometers in the Maghreb countries showed the values close to +50°. The normal values of monthly-averaged temperatures were overridden by 2-3° or more in Morocco, Algeria and Egypt, and roughly by 1° or more in the south, all the way to the equator. This July in North Africa was the third hottest in history: there, the weather was even hotter in July 2003 and July 1987 only.
The Sun in July was roasting Europe again. New daily maxima were set in the Scandinavian and Baltic countries, in Belarus, in Central Europe and in the Balkans. The thermometer readings rose above +34° beyond the Arctic Circle in Norway. Air temperatures of 25° and above persisted for 24 successive days in Finland. Nothing like that has ever seen before in both these regions. The air temperature in the south of Italy and Spain as well as in the Balkan countries often crossed the 40° level. The monthly-averaged temperature was above its normal value almost everywhere in Europe: by 2-4 or more degrees in the northern, eastern and south-eastern parts of the continent, and by about 1° in the rest of its territory. The only exceptions where this temperature was close to normal were certain places in the south of France and the north of Spain. In 2021, the average July temperature reproduced its achievement of July 2018 and occupied the 2-3 position in the ranking list of highest values. July 2006 was the only one in this list when it was warmer, by just about 0.1°.
In most of North America, the air temperature was above the normal value, or close to it. Positive anomalies were most noticeable in the west of the US and the south-west of Canada where they reached +2-4° and above. This July was the hottest in the history of meteorological observations in the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California and Nevada. In the first half of the month, a wave of heat covered the south-west of the United States, and the air temperature reached +45-47° in California, Arizona, Nevada and Utah, and as high as +54° in Death Valley. A temperature of +23.4° was recorded beyond the Arctic Cycle in the north-east of Greenland: this was the absolute maximum in the entire history of observations. The ice sheet in Greenland was rapidly melting at such high temperatures.
The air temperature averaged for July 2021 over the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth was, to an accuracy of 0.1°C, the same as the record-breaking achievement established in 2020.
In Moscow, the average temperature in July was +22.2°. This value is 4° less than in the ever hottest July of 2010, and is the eighth highest one. During the month, the daily maximum temperature was once reproduced and once exceeded.

Ocean Surface Temperature

The phase of the Southern Oscillation was still neutral in the Pacific Ocean. The SST anomalies at the equatorial latitudes were close to normal. The average SST anomaly in the Northern Hemisphere was the same as in June but significantly less than last July. The surface of the Ocean was abnormally warm at the subtropical and temperate latitudes where the anomalies exceeded +2-3° in a significant water area. The highest anomalies were observed in the coastal zone: for example, the ocean surface off the coast of Sakhalin warmed up to +26° on some days, which is not always so even in the Black Sea.
The average SST anomaly in the Atlantic Ocean was about the same as in June, but also less than in July last year. The distribution of anomalies was more varied. Abnormally cold water concentrated off the coast of Southern Europe and North Africa, and in the Gulf of Mexico, while abnormally warm one, off the coast of the USA and Canada (were anomalies exceeded 2° in places), and off the coast of Northern Europe. Water was very warm in the Gulf of Guinea.


Hot weather and dry weather often keep in step with each other. It was exactly the case during this month: the abnormal heat was accompanied by the lack of precipitation in the ETR. Even though heavy rains on some days flooded the Volga region, the Crimea, the Black Earth region and the north-west or south of the ETR at random, the monthly rainfall totals did not reach the normal values in most constituent territories of the Federation. The exceptions were the North Caucasian and Southern Federal Districts, the Kaliningrad and Tambov Regions, the Perm Territory and the Republic of Udmurtia. And the rains were very intensive sometimes. Once again, the Crimea was hit by the unprecedented rainfalls which brought up to 30-40 mm of rainwater per day. The downpours immediately boosted the level of rivers which exceeded its historical maximum in some places. Up to 70-100% of the normal precipitation amount was recorded overnight in the Krasnodar Territory and the Rostov Region. Full-flowing rivers ran along the streets of Rostov-on-Don and Sochi. A similar picture was observed in some locations of the Volga region and the Kaliningrad Region.
Rains were abundant in the Urals. In Siberia, they mostly concentrated in the north where the normal rainfall values were surpassed by 1.5 times. It was still snowing in Taimyr. The rains were unprecedented in the Omsk and Tyumen Regions where the normal monthly precipitation was achieved, just like in Tyva. The rest of Siberia received less rains than usual. The weather in the south of the Far East was dry. The monthly precipitation totals in the Primorye, in the Jewish Autonomous Region, in the south of the Khabarovsk Territory and on Sakhalin did not even reach half the normal figure. The precipitation amounts in the rest of the territory were either normal or increased; the latter primarily concerns the Amur Region where up to 35-55 mm of atmospheric moisture could accumulate per day in some places. Up to 60 mm of precipitation was recorded in two days in the Trans-Baikal where the rivers overflowed their banks. Moist Pacific air repeatedly brought rains to Kolyma and Chukotka. Up to two normal daily precipitation amounts or more were observed in places.
The central regions of China were flooded by monsoon rains. The most intense heavy rains caused flooding in the province Henan. In Zhengzhong, more than 550mm of rain fell one day and more than 700 mm in three days, given a normal monthly amount of 640 mm. The disaster affected about a million people, killing more than 300. The Chinese forecasters asserted that no such rains have ever occurred before in this part of the country. The torrential rains took place in the provinces of Sichuan, Shanxi and Jiangxi as well. For a single day, 100 mm of precipitation fell in Beijing, amounting to 2/3 of the normal monthly total. More than 100 thousand hectares of agricultural crops have been flooded in Inner Mongolia. This July, a precipitation rate of 1.5 to 2.0 times the normal value was considered quite ordinary in China.
Japan suffered from heavy rains and from the floods following them; as a result, the authorities were forced to evacuate more than 200 thousand people. The monthly precipitation on the Pacific coast of the island of Honshu was 2.0-2.5 times the normal value, but was normal in most of the country, and less than that in the south. In Mongolia, the weather was mostly dry.
The precipitation amounts in South-East Asia were close to normal, but were twice the normal value on the island of Luzon in the north of Philippines. In addition, incessant rains poured in the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Borneo where the precipitation rate was up to 30 mm per hour. This resulted in floods.
Heavy rains pelted all over the Hindustan Peninsula, bringing 235 mm of rainwater per day to Mumbai and causing landslides, collapse of buildings and human deaths in the west and north of India. More than 400 thousand people have been evacuated by the authorities. In Bangladesh, showers brought up to 300 mm per day, and 200 thousand people were affected. In Nepal, heavy rains caused floods and landslides all over the country, claiming the lives of people. The normal precipitation amounts were exceeded by 1.5-2.0 times in most of the peninsula.
The weather in Central Asia was basically dry with the exception of heavy rains causing floods in the east of Afghanistan where more than 200 people were pronounced dead or missing.
In the Near and Middle East, no rains were observed save for heavy showers in Iraq and the southern regions of the Arabian Peninsula in the middle of the month. Up to 200 mm of rain fell each day in the city of Sur (Oman), just to compare with the normal monthly amount of 25 mm, and resulted in floods. The normal monthly totals in Yemen and Oman wee exceeded by 1.5-2.5 times or more. The figures in the Levant were either close to normal or larger than that.
Virtually no precipitation was recorded in North Africa: most weather stations reported zero totals per month. Rains fell in the south-west only, and their monthly outcomes were either normal or slightly increased.
A large part of Europe was flooded with rains. The precipitation amounts were two or more times greater than heir normal values in some places in Germany, France and the Czech Republic, and about normal or greater everywhere from Poland to the UK, as well as in Scandinavia. The areas of sub-normal precipitation only included the Baltic countries, Denmark, the south of Sweden, as well as Spain, Portugal, Austria and the Balkan countries. In the first decade of July, agricultural lands of Moldova were damaged due to heavy rains that swept across Lithuania and Latvia at about the same time. In Vilnius, a new maximum of daily precipitation was recorded. In the south-west of Latvia, more than 89 mm of precipitation fell for a single day. In Switzerland, intense rains were observed. But all the above culminated in the second half of the month when rainstorms hit the west and south-west of Germany, the east and north of France as well as Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the north of Italy. Then, the daily amount of atmospheric moisture reached 120-180 mm. The tributaries of Rhine overflowed their banks due to rains, leading to massive flooding. Streams of water rolled over the streets, leaving more than 100 people dead and hundreds of thousands in darkness without electricity. In Zurich, 30 mm of rainwater poured out in 10 minutes, while in the north of Italy, 50-60 mm in two days. Heavy rains spread to the south-east of England, leaving the streets of London flooded with water. Powerful water fluxes rolled over the north of France, Belgium and the Netherlands. A disaster of such a scale was previously experienced in Europe in 2002. Heavy downpours were also recorded in Ukraine where they flooded many streets and subway stations in Kiev.
This July was the sixth wettest in the meteorological annals of the US. The monthly precipitation totals were normal or increased almost everywhere in the country, or exceeded the normal values by two or more times in some places, remarkably, in New England where this ratio was three or above. Eventually, July 2021 was deemed the second wettest in the history of meteorological observations. Downpours in New-York flooded the streets in the city. In the state of Arizona, precipitation was abundant. But the west along Pacific coast and the north-west in the states of Washington and Montana were plagued by the drought. The authorities of the former state declared the extreme drought conditions because the precipitation totals for the three preceding months had been as low as 90 mm. This was the smallest figure in the entire history of meteorological observations. According to NOAA, the moisture of the soil was lower than ever recorded before. The same situation was in the states of California, Oregon, Arizona and Utah. Wildfires are blazing in the south-western US due to fierce heat and no precipitation.
A lot of precipitation as much as two or more normal amounts fell in the north of Mexico, and less then the normal quantity, in the south of the country. The precipitation was sub-normal in the south and west of Canada, and normal or above-normal in its north and east.
In Moscow, the total amount of precipitation in June was 43 mm, resulting just in 46% of the normal value.