Air Temperature

In the first decade of June, abnormally warm weather in the ETR was only observed in the north (in the Murmansk and Arkhangelsk Regions, and in Komi Republic) where the anomalies of decade-averaged temperatures reached +4-7°, and in the south (in the Crimea, in the Krasnodar Territory and in the republics of the North Caucasus) where these anomalies amounted to +3-5°. In Dagestan, the thermometer readings rose to the 35° mark sometimes, resulting in new daily temperature maxima in a number of locations such as Makhachkala and Derbent. In the rest of the territory, the air temperature was approximately normal in the first decade and normal or somewhat higher than that in the second one. Notably, the said "higher" values were measured in the same regions as in the first decade, i.e., in the north and south of the ETR, even though the anomalies themselves became significantly weaker. The third decade started roughly with the same weather, but in its last five days, the weather became hot in the north-west of Russia, with the temperatures up to 30° or higher observed and new daily maxima recorded in Karelia as well as in the Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov and Murmansk Regions. Yet at the same time, very cold air came to the north of the ETR as well as to the Volga and Cis-Ural Regions where the record-breaking temperature minima were reported in the republics of Komi and Udmurtia and in the Kostroma, Vladimir, Samara and Orenburg Regions: there, the average temperature in the third decade turned out to be 3-5° less than normal.
In Siberia and in the Far East, the weather was generally warmer than usual. Only at the beginning of the month, cold weather prevailed in the south of Western Siberia and in Altai. New daily temperature minima were set in the Omsk, Kemerovo and Novosibirsk Regions as well as in the republics of Tyva and Khakassia. In the third decade, the same happened in the Magadan Region. For the rest of the time, the anomalies of decade-averaged temperatures reached +5-9° in some places. The weather in Yakutia was extremely hot: the temperatures up to +35° and above were observed there for several days in a row, or up to +30° and above beyond the Arctic Circle.
As a result, this June in Russia can be considered moderately warm. The monthly-averaged temperature was 2-3° higher than normal in most of the country, and 4-6 or more degrees higher in the north of the Urals, Siberia and Yakutia. In most of Central Russia, in parts of the Volga region, in the south of the Urals and Western Siberia, this temperature was close to normal, albeit that against a negative background in the Volga region. For example, the monthly-averaged air temperature was subnormal in the Volga Federal District. The average temperature in June 2022 was ranked the seventh highest in the history of meteorological observations since 1891.
The weather all over East Asia was noticeably warmer than usual. The monthly-averaged temperatures exceeded their normal values by 2-4 or more degrees in Mongolia and northern China, and by 2-3 or more degrees in Japan and in the Korean Peninsula. At the end of the month, the temperatures higher than ever came to Japan where the thermometers measured above 40°. A new absolute maximum temperature for June was recorded on the island of Hokkaido in the north of the country; the same happened in the capital of Japan. June 25 became the hottest June day in the history of observations in Japan. In China, this June was the hottest one in the meteorological chronicle, topping the previous record of 2005 by 0.2°. It should be noted that this spring was also ever hottest there.
In the countries of South-East Asia, the average temperature in June was close to normal. The north of Vietnam was the only exception where the normal value was exceeded by 2-3°.
The temperatures were about normal almost everywhere in India, but subnormal in Sri Lanka and in Pakistan, especially in the north.
All over the Near and Middle East, the weather was hot: the air temperatures were 2-4° higher than normal.
The same can be said about Central Asia where numerous new maxima of air temperature were set in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, some of those maxima being new monthly ones recorded in June for the respective country, for Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in particular.
Throughout North Africa, the monthly-averaged temperatures were above-normal, especially in the north of the continent (in Algeria and Tunisia) where the anomalies of monthly-averaged temperatures reached 4-7°. June 2022 in North Africa was the second hottest in the history of meteorological observations, 0.3° colder than June 2019 only.
In Europe, this June was also the second hottest ever recorded. The monthly-averaged temperatures were less than normal in neither region of the continent: they were 2 or more degrees higher almost everywhere, and 3-4 or more degrees higher in Spain, France and Italy as well as in the Balkan countries. The thermometer readings repeatedly rose above 40-44° in Spain and Portugal where such excessive heat with no rains led to scores of fires. In the Biarritz resort located on the shore of the Bay of Biscay in France and attracted by rich people due to its mild cool climate, the air temperature reached +42.9° for the first time in history. New monthly maxima for June were also set in Bosnia and Croatia, while new daily maxima, in many European countries all the way from southern France to northern Svalbard.
In North America, this June was warmer than usual, hitting the Top Ten warmest in the entire history of meteorological observations in the US and Canada. Abnormal heat occupied the Midwest of the USA in the first half of June to result in air temperatures as high as 42° and to kill up to ten thousand heads of cattle. In terms of monthly figures, the temperatures noticeably higher than normal were measured in the Midwest and to the south of it, as well as along the Pacific coast and in Alaska where the values were the fourth highest in history. The weather in New England and in the Rocky Mountains was somewhat colder than usual. In Canada, the temperature was above-normal in the Arctic region and in the centre of the country, and close to normal in the rest of the territory.
The average air temperature in the Arctic was 1.5° higher than normal.
The average air temperature calculated to an accuracy of 0.1°C for the Northern Hemisphere was the fifth highest in the ranking list compiled since 1891.
In Moscow, the average temperature was 18.8°, implying a +2.2° anomaly.

Sea Surface Temperature

La Niña, a cold episode of the Southern Oscillation, remained strong in the Pacific Ocean. Negative SST anomalies occupied a huge water area that extended from 160°E to the American coast and from Mexico in the north to Chile in the south. Large positive anomalies of +2° and above were observed in the centre of the Ocean and at temperate latitudes but were also accompanied with negative yet weaker ones up to -1° in their magnitude. The SST was about 1° higher than normal in the Yellow and Japan Seas, and by the same amount lower in the Bering Straight.
As for the Atlantic Ocean, the average SST anomaly which had dramatically increased a month before, now decreased yet remained larger still than in June 2021. Very high temperatures (1-2° higher than normal) were observed off the US coast and along the coast of Europe. On some days, the SST off the coasts of Spain, France and Italy was 5° higher than its normal climatic value. The water off the coast of Canada and in the north of the Ocean was excessively cold but heated close to the normal temperature still.

Precipitation in June was subnormal in many constituent entities of the Federation across the ETR. However, heavy rains did occur: in the first decade, they pelted in the west of the Kaliningrad Region, in the north of Karelia, in the Arkhangelsk and Vologda Regions, in Central Russia and in the Volga region, bringing up to 50 mm of rainwater per day to certain locations. In the middle of the month, 20-30 mm of precipitation accumulated in the midland part each day, and the entire monthly amount was collected in just two days in the Pskov Region. In the third decade, heavy showers hit the Southern Federal District, their intensity reaching 25-35 mm/day in the Crimea, in Dagestan, in the Rostov Region and in the Krasnodar Territory. At the end of June, wet snow fell in the Perm Territory.
A place to receive a lot of precipitation was the Urals where the normal monthly totals were reached or exceeded in all entities of the Federation. Siberia, excluding Khakassia and Tyva, was also rich in precipitation, with the normal monthly totals exceeded by one and a half times in the Tomsk and Novosibirsk Regions. Heavy rains were falling all over this territory, bringing up to 40-45 mm of rainwater per day. Up to 70% of the normal monthly precipitation amount could be easily gained for a single day in Novosibirsk.
Precipitation in the Far East was normal or above-normal with the exception of Kamchatka surprising with figures three times less the normal monthly one. Up to 30-50 mm of daily rainwater was recorded in Trans-Baikal, Amur region, Sakhalin and in Khabarovsk or Primorye Territories. New daily precipitation maxima were recorded, in Vladivostok in particular.
In China, the summer monsoon started in the south-east and then spread to the north-east and west causing landslides, destruction of infrastructure and erosion of agricultural lands. According to Chinese meteorologists, the season of rains will be especially strong this year. As for the present June, the normal precipitation totals were exceeded by 1.5-3.0 times in the centre, in the east and, most notably, in the north-east of the country. A similar picture was observed in the Korean Peninsula, whereas in Japan, the monsoon seemed not to reach its full force yet. A lot of precipitation (1.5-2.0 times the normal value), although for a different reason, went to the northern island of Hokkaido, but the rains were scarce in the rest of the territory: usually, less than half the normal amount.
Precipitation in the countries of South-East Asia was either normal, or above-normal in some places.
Copious rains fell in South Asia. In India and Bangladesh, downpours led to large-scale flooding and massive landslides resulting in numerous fatalities. Snowfalls took place in the mountains of Pakistan. The normal monthly amounts of precipitation were exceeded by 2-4 times in some regions of South Asia.
The weather in the Near and Middle East was dry everywhere except for Turkey and its adjacent territories where the rains caused multitudinous floods and brought 150-200 mm of rainwater in less than two days to certain places. The record-breaking precipitation totals where reported in the capital Ankara. Floods also occurred in the west of Georgia.
Dry weather prevailed in the countries of Central Asia: rains were very rare, and their monthly amount was less than half of the normal quantity. The only exception was Afghanistan where heavy showers in the north-east of the country led to devastating floods, and snowfalls were observed as well.
In contrast to the north of Africa almost entirely deprived of rains, their amounts in the countries close to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Guinea, i.e. from Morocco to Nigeria, were sufficient to gain or, in places, exceed the normal precipitation value.
Dryness still reigned in Europe. Northern Italy suffered from a draught: there, no rains have been seen for four months already, and the amount of snow in winter was just 70% of the normal value. The rivers have dried up, and the river Po, the largest in the region, became as shallow as to disclose the bodies of ships that had sunk in the Middle Ages. The monthly precipitation totals all the way from Spain to Ukraine were less than half the normal ones, and less than 10% or altogether zero in a number of countries. Rains fell in the south-east of the continent only, causing floods in Greece and Bosnia, as well as in the west of France and in Belgium, interrupting the railway communication.
The weather in most of the US and Canada was dry. The normal precipitation amounts were only reached in the north-west and north-east of the US as well as in the states located along the Gulf of Mexico, in Florida and in New Mexico. In the latter state and in Mexico to its south, precipitation fell in huge amounts and caused flooding that was deemed the strongest one for the last 50 years by local experts. In the rest of the US, especially in its west and in the Rocky Mountains, the precipitation amounts were less than normal. The monthly precipitation totals in Canada also varied a great deal: they were normal or above-normal in the south of the country and in the Arctic region, but less than normal in the west of the country as well as in neighbouring Alaska.
In Moscow, 46 mm of atmospheric moisture fell in June, amounting to 61% of the normal value; for six months, 49% of the normal annual value was gained.