Air Temperature

The weather in the ETR, especially in its eastern regions, was somewhat warmer than usual in the first decade of October. Transient colds came at the time of transition from the first to second decade and forced the air temperature to drop below zero in some places. But in the second decade, the warmth came back and was most intensive in the Russian North where new daily maxima of air temperatures were reported en masse. This anomalous warmth persisted over the whole ETR until the end of the month, accompanied with new record-breaking temperatures in the north-east (in Karelia and in the Leningrad Region).
In the Urals, the temperatures remained above-normal for almost the entire month. In the south of Siberia and of the Far East, the weather was abnormally cold at the beginning of the month, with new daily temperature minima recorded in a number of locations. In the Khabarovsk and Trans-Baikal Territories, the decade-averaged temperature in the first decade turned out to be 2-3° lower than normal. Similar to the ETR, the east of Russia in the second half of the month was hit by anomalous heat that begot new records established both in the north and in the south of Siberia, as well as in Yakutia: in these areas, the decade-averaged temperatures were 8-10° higher than normal.
As a result, the monthly-averaged air temperature in October exceeded its normal value almost everywhere in Russia: by about 2° in the European territory, and by 4-8° in the Asian territory. The south of Kolyma and the north of Kamchatka were the only exceptions where the month was moderately
colder than usual. Ultimately, this October became the third warmest in the meteorological annals of Russia recorded since 1891, of the same rank as October 2008 and October 2020. October 2018 with the average temperature 1° higher than the one observed this year preserved its leading position. The monthly-averaged temperatures in October 2022 calculated for the European and Asian territories, and those calculated for the North-West and for the Siberian Federal Districts separately, entered the Top Ten of the highest values. The average temperature in the Ural Federal District reproduced the record-breaking achievement dated 2007.
In the east and south-east of Asia, the monthly-averaged temperature background was close to normal with weakly-positive anomalies everywhere except for small areas in Mongolia and on the coast of the Yellow Sea where they happened to be weakly-negative.
In India, the monthly-averaged air temperature was also close to normal, but in this case, against the background of weakly-negative anomalies in most of the country, and of weakly-positive ones in neighbouring Pakistan where these anomalies were quite high in the south of the country and exceeded 2° in places.
The weather in the Near and Middle East was noticeably warmer than usual (by two or more degrees). New daily temperature maxima were recorded in the first day of the month in the Levant countries.
In North Africa, the temperatures were above-normal almost everywhere, most noticeably, in its north-west (in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco) where the anomalies reached +2…4 and more degrees.
In Central Asia, the normal temperatures for October were also remarkably exceeded: by 2-3° in some locations of Kazakhstan, and by 1-2° or more in other ex-Soviet republics.
Europe greeted the return of summer in October: for example, the thermometer readings in Spain sometimes rose to 25-30° even in the last days of the month. Everywhere save for the Southern Balkans, Greece and the south of Italy, the monthly-averaged temperature was 2-4° higher than normal. This October was the warmest in the history of the continent since 1891: the previous record of warmth set in 2001 was beaten by 0.5°.
In Canada, an unprecedented warm October 2021 was a precursor of yet another very warm October 2022 when the monthly-averaged temperature was the second highest in the ranking list after the one observed a year before, and its value averaged over the entire territory of the county was almost 3° higher than normal. In most of Canada, the temperatures exceeded their normal values by 2-4° or more. In the rest of North America, the monthly-averaged air temperatures were close to normal against a positive background of anomalies, or, in the south-east of the US only, against a negative background. On the Pacific coast, the weather was noticeably warmer than usual.
In the Arctic, the average temperature was -6.4°, and thus, the anomaly amounted to almost +4°. The anomalies were highest (up to 4-8°) in the north of Eurasia, and reached +2-4° in the north of the North American continent.
In Moscow, the average temperature was 7.2° implying an anomaly of 2.1°, i.e., 2° lower than in October 2020 which was the warmest in history.

Sea Surface Temperature

La Niña, a cold episode of the Southern Oscillation that is characterised, in particular, by the presence of negative SST anomalies at eastern equatorial latitudes of the Pacific Ocean in both hemispheres, continued to gain its strength, confirming the growth of large negative SST anomalies. The average negative SST anomaly in the La Niña zone exceeded 1° and reached -2° or even -3° in some water bodies: such anomalies are very high for the relevant latitudes of low SST variability.
At temperate latitudes of the Pacific Ocean, large positive SST anomalies (of +2…3° or more degrees) survived. In the Yellow, Okhotsk and Bering Seas off the eastern coast of Asia, negative anomalies were observed.
In the Atlantic Ocean, large positive anomalies (of up to +2° and higher) were also observed between North America and Europe, i.e., at temperate latitudes. The SST in the marginal seas of the European continent was also noticeably higher than normal (by 1-2°). Above-normal temperatures were also observed in the Barents and Kara Seas in the Arctic. Negative anomalies were rare: perhaps, they only took place off the coast of Greenland and, to a limited extent, in the Canary Current off the coast of Africa.


In the ETR, heavy rains in October took place in the central and Black Earth regions, as well as in the North Caucasus, bringing up to 30-80 mm of atmospheric moisture per day and setting new daily precipitation maxima in certain locations. Monthly precipitation totals in all subjects of the Federation, with the exception of the Kaliningrad Region reached the normal value or exceeded it: by 1.5 or more times in the north of the Central Federal District, in the Krasnodar Territory and in Ingushetia, and by 2 or more times in the Black Earth region, in the Rostov Region, in the south of the Volga region and in Karachay-Cherkessia. Snow of a depth up to 20-25 cm was already observed in the Russian North.
Heavy snowfalls took place in the south of the Urals, in Yakutia and on Sakhalin. Yet, monthly precipitation totals were modest in the Urals and to the east of them, close to or less than the normal figures as a rule. The only exceptions to exceed these figures were Taimyr as well as the north of Yakutia and Kamchatka.
Precipitation in the countries of East Asia was generally scanty, especially in Japan where its amounts did not reach a half of the normal value. The north of the Korean Peninsula, the earth of Mongolia, as well as the north-east of China and a number of other regions of this country were the only exceptions to achieve or exceed the normal value.
This October was rainy in the countries of South-East Asia. Heavy rains caused large-scale floods in Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar. The normal monthly precipitation amounts were exceeded by 3-4 or more times in some places.
Downpours caused floods in several regions of India and in Sri Lanka. The precipitation quantities in India were normal or above-normal everywhere except for the northern provinces: the weather in the north of the country as well as in most of Pakistan was dry.
Likewise, the weather was dry in the Near and Middle East. At the end of the month, heavy rains hit Saudi Arabia, causing floods and landslides.
In North Africa, almost no rains fell in the areas from the Mediterranean Sea to the underside of Sahara. Rains took place in individual regions of Algeria only where they brought normal precipitation amounts or slightly more than that. On the other hand, the monthly amount of atmospheric moisture accumulated to the south of Sahara exceeded the normal figure by 1.5-2.0 times.
In most of Central Asia, the weather was dry as well. The normal monthly precipitation totals were only reached in certain areas of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
In the European continent, precipitation was deficient: its normal monthly amount was not reached in most countries. Torrential downpours of intensity up to 80 mm/day took place in the south of France so that the normal monthly precipitation amounts were ensured. In Belarus, new daily precipitation maxima were recorded, and the normal monthly figures were also reached. Many heavy rains bringing as much as two normal monthly precipitation amounts occurred in the island of Crete where they caused floods.
In Canada, the monthly precipitation totals were normal or above-normal in the north of the country, and normal or subnormal in the south. In the US, precipitation was scanty on the Pacific coast, and along the Atlantic coast to the south of Washington. Normal or above-normal precipitation was reported in the north-east and south-west of the country as well as in the region of the Great Lakes. Locations to obtain a lot of precipitation were the countries of South America in the Northern Hemisphere where the rainy season is in place in October. Venezuela and Columbia got a huge amount of precipitation this October. In these countries, heavy rains flooded vast areas, rivers overflowed their banks, considerable economic damages were inflicted, and the fatalities were reported.
In October, 62 mm of precipitation fell in Moscow. This is the normal amount.