Air Temperature

Abnormal heat that expanded from the Baltic Sea to the Sea of Okhotsk at the end of October persisted and even intensified in the first decade of November. New daily maxima of air temperature were recorded in the north-west of the ETR, in the Russian North and in the Arctic. In the second decade, this abnormal heat in the ETR became weaker, and in the third one, it faded away everywhere excluding the southern regions. At times, new temperature maxima were measured in the Crimea, Astrakhan Region and Northern Caucasus. In the second half of the month, the unprecedented cold weather came to the north of the country, as well as to the Urals and the territories to the east of them, the frosts reaching -35…-45°, or below -50° in Yakutia. But ultimately, the competition between the heat and the cold ended in a tie: the monthly-averaged air temperatures were close to normal in most of Russia, below normal in the Ural Federal District and partly in the north of the Far East, and higher than normal – noticeably higher indeed – in the Arctic and in the south of the Far East where November 2022 was among the Top Ten warmest in the entire history of meteorological observations, i.e., since 1891.
This autumn in Russia can be considered abnormally warm even though the average temperature in most of the country was close to normal, against the background of positive or negative anomalies in some or other areas. But the weather in the Arctic, in the north of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and in Yakutia was by as much as 2-4° warmer than usual.
The temperature averaged for the past eleven months was the second highest in the ranking list since 1891. The temperature forecast for December suggests that the year 2022 would not likely be warmer than the current leader 2020.
The weather in eastern Asia was very warm in November. The monthly-averaged temperatures in China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan were 2-4° higher than normal. In China, this November was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations: the previous highest monthly-averaged temperature recorded in November 2006 was exceeded by more than half a degree.
In South-East Asia, the monthly-averaged air temperature was also higher than normal, notably, two or more degrees higher in some places.
The monthly averages in India and Pakistan were basically normal against the background of anomalies that were positive as a rule, but negative in the central regions of India.
Hot weather in the Near and Middle East resulted in monthly-averaged temperatures that exceeded the normal values by two or more degrees.
In the countries of Central Asia, the average air temperatures in November were generally higher than usual, two or more degrees higher in certain regions of Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, but were noticeably lower than normal in some other areas including Kara-Kalpak in Uzbekistan and the western provinces of Kazakhstan.
The temperatures in North Africa were approximately normal everywhere save for Morocco and Algeria in its north-west where the normal value was exceeded by about 2°.
Europe was enthralled by the Azores anticyclone for the entire month, with the normal monthly-averaged air temperatures exceeded by 2-3° or more, and new temperature maxima set in Spain, France, the Balkans, Greece, the Scandinavian countries and Estonia. In addition to numerous daily ones, these maxima included new absolute maximum temperatures for November. The air in Spain and in the south of France would heat up to 25-30°. The monthly-averaged temperature in the continent occupied the last position in the Top Five of the highest ones, yielding just 0.2° to the record-breaking November 1926.
This month, cold weather dominated in the western territories of Canada and the US, as well as in the north of Mexico. There, the monthly-averaged temperatures were subnormal, and were two or more degrees lower than normal in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. The weather was abnormally hot in the province of Yukon in the north-west of Canada (with anomalies of 2-4° or more), in the north-east of the USA, in the Mexican peninsula of Yucatan and partly in the countries of Central America. In the USA, the month may be considered cold as its average temperature was lower than usual.
In November, the average air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere was at the fifth to seventh position in the ranking list since 1891, and autumn 2022 shared the second to fourth place with those of 2015 and 2019. The warmest autumn was observed in 2020. This year, autumn was remarkably warmer than usual in Europe, in north-west Africa, in the Near and Middle East, in China, in the north-east of the US and in the Arctic region of Canada. In China, the record-breaking achievement of 2006 was reproduced. In Europe, this autumn was the third warmest, and in the Arctic, it entered the Top Ten warmest in the history of meteorological observations.

Sea Surface Temperature

Before this November, La Niña in the Pacific Ocean has effectively been active for twenty-eight months in succession. This is the second longest period in the history of observations: in 1973-1976, La Niña lasted for 36 months. High negative SST anomalies were observed in the equatorial zones of both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. As if to balance against this, high positive SST anomalies (+2…3° and above) have been observed at temperate latitudes for a long time already. Negative SST anomalies also took place in the north off the coast of Alaska, but the monthly-averaged values in the rest of the Pacific Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere were above-normal.
In the Atlantic Ocean, the absolute maximum of SST first achieved in 1999 and later regained in 2021 was reproduced in November 2022. Thus, the surface temperature of the Atlantic Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere was extremely high for two consecutive years in November. High positive SST anomalies (+2…3° and above) were observed at temperate and subtropical latitudes in the waters from America to Africa and Europe. Anomalies exceeding 2° were also measured in the Mediterranean Sea and off the coast of Scandinavia as far as the Barents Sea. Negative SST anomalies were quite rare, and local in their character.


This November, precipitation was lacking in the northern regions of the Russian Federation with the exception of Taimyr and the north-east of the country where the monthly precipitation amounts were 1.5-2.0 times their normal figures.
To the south of these territories, the quantities of the accumulated precipitation were diverse. Precipitation was close to normal in the west, but somewhat less than that in the Russian North. On the last day of November, heavy snowfalls hit the Arkhangelsk Territory and the Republic of Komi, adding 45-60 mm of precipitation to the monthly total. At the beginning of the third decade, heavy rains fell in central Russia where new maxima of daily precipitation totals were recorded in the Ryazan, Belgorod, Lipetsk and Tambov Regions. Yet, the normal figures have not been achieved in many regions of the Central Federal District, for example, in the Moscow, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo and Tula Regions.
Rains and snowfalls brought a lot of atmospheric moisture to the Volga region where the normal precipitation amounts were reached or exceeded. As early as at the beginning of the month, the Perm Territory, Bashkiria, Tatarstan along with the Samara and Orenburg Regions were covered with snow 10-15 cm high. In the third decade, rains came to these territories and to Central Russia alike, resulting in new daily precipitation maxima.
In the south of the ETR, precipitation in November was scarce, and the normal figures were only achieved in the Rostov and Volgograd Regions, in the Crimea and in a number of North Caucasian republics.
Locations where the forces of nature broke loose were the Urals; there, with the exception of the northern autonomous regions, the normal precipitation amounts were exceeded by 1.5-2.0 times. In the south of the Urals, snow was falling for several days in a row, and its height reached a 50 cm mark.
Precipitation was normal or increased in the Omsk and Novosibirsk Regions, in the Altai Territory and in the republics of Altai and Tyva, but subnormal in the rest of Siberia. The normal figures were also reached or exceeded in most constituent entities of the Far Eastern Federal District, where "exceeded" primarily concerns the Amur Region and the abovementioned northern territories. In mid-November, snowfalls and rains came to Primorye and Sakhalin bringing up to 20-30 mm of daily precipitation in some places, and at the end of the month, to the same areas plus the Khabarovsk Territory, with up to 20-40 of snow per day.
This November, abundant precipitation of one and a half to two normal amounts or more went to the Chinese provinces along the eastern coast of the country and to the north-west where heavy snowfalls took place. The rest of the territory suffered from drought of a scale estimated as moderate to severe.
In the countries of South-East Asia, heavy rains took place, and the normal precipitation amounts were reached or exceeded everywhere: in some locations, they were exceeded by two or more times.
The winter monsoon in India and in the south of Pakistan led to almost total absence of rains: they were solely observed in the extreme south of India and in the north of Pakistan.
The weather in the Near and Middle East was mostly dry, although occasional showers caused considerable damage. For example, in Saudi Arabia they were so heavy as to result in floods in the areas where rains are only observed several times a year. Up to 180 mm of rainwater fell per day, amounting to twice the normal annual figure. Giant lakes developed in the desert, and the normal precipitation amounts were exceeded by three or more times. Floods due to heavy downpours took place in Lebanon as well.
As usual, almost no rains fell in North Africa, with the only exceptions of Morocco and Libya in the north where 20 to 60 mm of precipitation accumulated per day, and of the countries around the Gulf of Guinea in the south. In Nigeria, rains caused floods that affected millions of people and led to fatalities. Meteorologists marked that Morocco was experiencing the worst drought in the past thirty years.
In Kazakhstan and other ex-Soviet Asian republics, precipitation was normal or increased almost everywhere save for Turkmenistan where it was scarce.
European countries demonstrated large differences in the amounts of precipitation accumulated in November. In the central and northern parts of the continent, they were less than the normal value or even less than its half in some places, whereas in the west and in the south, they significantly exceeded this value. Heavy rains that poured in certain locations of England and Scotland brought up to 15-25 mm of atmospheric moisture in half of day and up to the normal monthly quantity in a single day. Streets and underground stations were flooded in London. The south-east of France and the island of Corsica suffered from torrential rains that brought 80-120 mm of precipitation in just a few hours. A lot of rain, and snow in places, went to the Balkans where the rivers overflowed their banks in Serbia, Montenegro and Albania due to showers, and up to 100 mm of rainwater accumulated per day. Heavy snowfalls in Croatia created a snow cover 30-40 cm high. Southern Europe also suffered from rains. Showers in Italy that brought 100 to 200 mm of precipitation in a few hours caused floods and landslides. Unprecedented rains took place in the island of Ischia where 155 mm of rainwater fell in six hours. Heavy rains (of 45-90 mm/day intensity) in Portugal also triggered landslides and caused damages.
In Canada, the monthly precipitation totals were normal in the north-west and south of the country, but subnormal in the rest of the territory. Snowfall that hit the coast of British Columbia at the end of the month was so heavy that the height of freshly fallen snow in some places reached 40 mm. In the US, precipitation was scarce in the central south-western states, but normal or above-normal in the east and north-west of the country. A snow storm in the north-east extending from the Great Lakes to New-York created a snow cover up to 40-70 cm high. Intense snowfalls that swept Alaska formed half-metre snowdrifts. The weather was dry in the north of Mexico; in contrast, heavy rains fell in the south of the country, further to the south in Central America and in the north of South America where they led to numerous floods and landslides in Columbia, Venezuela and Panama. This year, the rainy season was deemed the most powerful in the last forty years. Floods and landslides that occurred during it claimed the lives of hundreds of people.
In Moscow, 38 mm of precipitation amounting to 66% of the normal figure fell in November, and 181 mm, slightly greater than usual, in autumn.