Air Temperature.

The last October was exceptionally favourable for the Russia’s inhabitants regarding the temperature comfort. “Indian summer” dominated the most part of the month. In the beginning of the first decade in the European territory in some places the light frosts were noted, in the other decades the exceptionally warm weather was everywhere, which was very rare for this time of the year. The information on the new temperature maximums came from everywhere, they were registering during the several days successively and repeatedly. In the ETR, this was happened in the second decade, beyond the Urals – during all month.
And as a result, this wonderful month became the warmest in Russia on the record, i.e. since 1891. The previous record of the maximum average October air temperature, registered almost 50 years ago, was overcame by 0.5°. Absolute maximum of the October average air temperature was reached in Siberia and Far East. Here the largest average temperature anomalies were registered - +4…9°. In any point of the country, the average monthly air temperature appeared above the norm.
In the most part of China, the average monthly temperature conditions corresponded to the norm. Here are the areas, where it was noticeably colder than usual (south and west of the country), but in some areas it was noticeably warmer than usual (eastern provinces Shandong, Henan, Jiangsu, Anhui). Air temperature in Mongolia and Japan is above the norm (in some places by 2-3° and more) and below the norm – in Korea.
Slightly higher the norm the average monthly air temperature in the South-East Asia and India. In the Middle East, this superiority of the warmth is more obvious. Here are the areas (in Iran, Arabia, Jordan, Israel, east of Turkey and Transcaucasia), where the average monthly air temperature anomalies reached +2…3°.
Air Temperature.
In the European territory of Russia, the beginning of autumn actually meant the summer continuation. In the first decade of the month, the air temperature maximums were registered in the Central and Central-Chernozem regions, in Crimea and in the north-west. The temperature were rising above 30°. The average decade anomalies in some places exceeded 5-6°. The same situation was observed in the north-east of the country. The summer warmth was kept here during the second decade. Once again, the maximum temperatures were registered in Chukotka and north-west of the European territory of the country. In the last decade the warmth, as before, dominated in the extreme north-east of Russia, whereas temperature conditions, close to autumn, came to ETR, and average temperatures of the third decade did not differ obviously from the norms, though exceeded them, as before. At this time, the new temperature maximums in Siberia and Yakutia replaced the cold weather beyond the Urals.
Altogether with this, the September frosts became not so seldom, as in August. They were registered not only beyond the Urals, which is usual for this time of the year, but in all European territory, including the south of Rostov and Volgograd areas, also in Primorye.
As a result of such monthly temperature distribution, the average September temperature value countrywide closed the first three highest values on the record, conceded two upper lines of 2016 and 2005 respectively. In the north of Far East federal district it was second warmest September (the first one is September 2003). In the Central federal district, it is the warmest one over the last 80 years. Its average temperature is close to the record values and is situated in the 4th line of the range row since 1891. In September 2018 in all European territory, Urals, along the Arctic coast and Chukotka the average monthly air temperature exceeded the norm by 2-4° and more. Except some areas in the north of Primorye, Sakhalin, Yakutia and south Siberian areas along the Kazakhstan border, the average monthly air temperature is above the norm everywhere.